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Snout-Vent Length Clutch Size Snout-Vent Length Clutch Size Snout-Vent Length Clutch Size 32 45 57 200 63 170 53 215 57 270 63 240 53 160 58 175 64 245 53 170 58 245 67 280 54 190 59 215 a symptoms hepatitis c order 2.5mg olanzapine amex. What is the equation of the regression line for predicting clutch size based on snout-vent length? Is there sufficient evidence to conclude that the slope of the population line is positive 2c19 medications cheap 2.5mg olanzapine mastercard. Predict the clutch size for a salamander with a snoutvent length of 65 using a 95% interval medicine vicodin cheap olanzapine 5mg online. Use the information given there to test the hypothesis that there is a positive linear relationship between the minimum width and the maximum width of an object medicine images discount olanzapine express. Calculate a 95% confidence interval for the mean maximum width of products with a minimum width of 6 cm. Calculate a 95% prediction interval for the maximum width of a food package with a minimum width of 6 cm. Dry cereal is considered to be a moisture-sensitive product (no one likes soggy cereal! In a study of the shelf life of one particular brand of cereal, x time on shelf (stored at 73 F and 50% relative humidity) and y moisture content were recorded. The resulting data are from "Computer Simulation Speeds Shelf Life Assessments" (Package Engineering : 7273). Does the simple linear regression model provide useful information for predicting moisture content from knowledge of shelf time? Find a 95% interval for the moisture content of an individual box of cereal that has been on the shelf 30 days. According to the article, taste tests indicate that this brand of cereal is unacceptably soggy when the moisture content exceeds 4. Based on your interval in Part (c), do you think that a box of cereal that has been on the shelf 30 days will be acceptable? The article "A Study of the Relationship between Blood Lead Levels and Occupational Lead Levels" (American Statistician : 471) gave data on x air-lead level (mg/m 3) and y bloodlead level (mg/dL). Summary quantities (based on a subset of the data given in a plot in the article) are 2 ax a. Calculate a 95% confidence interval for the true average sunburn index when the distance from the light source is 35 cm. When two 95% confidence intervals are computed, it can be shown that the simultaneous confidence level is at least [100 2(5)]% 90%. That is, if both intervals are computed for a first sample, for a second sample, yet again for a third, and so on, in the long run at least 90% of the samples will result in intervals both of which capture the values of the corresponding population characteristics. Calculate confidence intervals for the true mean sunburn index when the distance is 35 cm and when the distance is 45 cm in such a way that the simultaneous confidence level is at least 90%. If two 99% intervals were computed, what do you think could be said about the simultaneous confidence level? If a 95% confidence interval were computed for the true mean index when x 35, another 95% confidence interval were computed when x 40, and yet another one when x 45, what do you think would be the simultaneous confidence level for the three resulting intervals? Return to Part (d) and answer the question posed there if the individual confidence level for each interval were 99%. If three different 99% prediction intervals are calculated for distances (cm) of 35, 40, and 45, respectively, what can be said about the simultaneous prediction level? Estimate the mean blood-lead level for people who work where the air-lead level is 100 mg/m 3 using a 90% interval. Construct a 90% prediction interval for the blood-lead level of a particular person who works where the air-lead level is 100 mg/m 3. Explain the difference in interpretation of the intervals computed in Parts (b) and (c). The data and summary statistics presented there give Bold exercises answered in back Data set available online but not required Video solution available 734 C h a p t e r 13 Simple Linear Regression and Correlation: Inferential Methods Suppose that the system is actually a prototype model, and the manufacturer does not wish to produce this model unless the data strongly indicate that when maximum outdoor temperature is 82 F, the true average number of hours of chiller operation is less than 12. The appropriate hypothesis is then H0: a b(82) 12 versus Ha: a b(82) 12 Use the statistic t a b182 2 sa b1822 12 which has a t distribution based on (n 2) df when H0 is true, to test the hypotheses at significance level. Video solution available Bold exercises answered in back Data set available online but not required 13. The sample correlation coefficient r, defined in Chapter 5, measures how strongly the x and y values in a sample of pairs are linearly related to one another.
Fermentation was performed at 37°C for 24 h in 10% and 16% (w/v) reconstituted whey powder medicine 1700s purchase olanzapine 7.5 mg on-line. Most of the lactobacilli released amino acids and small peptides during the first 6 h incubation medicine hat college buy olanzapine 7.5mg amex. Makgeolli is a traditional Korean wine brewed from rice medicine for depression order olanzapine 2.5mg with visa, with an aromatic and sweet-sour taste medicine 773 purchase olanzapine with amex. The byproducts during the alcoholic fermentation comprise rice bran and brewery cake. The crude polysaccharide isolated from cytolase hydrolysates of Makgeolli contained glucose and mannose, and exhibited anticomplementary (immune-manipulation) activities (Bae et al. Increment in the gut bifidobacteria density implied its prebiotic potential (Reis et al. Amended malt extract was explored for feasibility of growing medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. The feasibility of using pastry waste as substrate for glucoamylase (an enzyme capable of saccharification of partially processed starch/dextrin to glucose) was evaluated by solid-state fermentation. A 10 days fermentation of 100 g pastry waste with Aspergillus awamori produced about 53- g glucose (Lam et al. Though the yield was low, necessary adjustments might improve the production (Thyagarajan et al. Wheat milling byproducts were subjected to solid-state fermentation by Aspergillus awamori for the production of glucoamylase and protease. Together they generate an enormous quantity of head, viscera, skin, exoskeletons, bones, scales, etc. Bioactive peptides contained in them are healthy and can be revalorized into functional foods and nutraceuticals. After oil extraction, the discarded head part of salmon still contains protein and high-value fatty acids. Fermentation of the byproduct with lactic acid bacteria improves its shelf-life (Bower and Hietala, 2010). The possibility of lactic acid fermentation for recovery of lipids and proteins from freshwater fish head was evaluated. In addition, it exhibited inhibition of pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella itridicus, Aspergillus ochraceus, and Penicillium chrysogenum. Both the oil and protein hydrolysate-rich slurry held potential to be implicated in food formulations (Ruthu et al. Wastes from cultured tuna, sardine, eel, catfish, and milkfish showed possibility of mining fish oil. Astaxanthin is a robust carotenoid antioxidant (more potent than -tocopherol, lutein, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, and -carotene) and found in abundance in the shell of shrimp, crab, and other crustaceans. Shrimp shell fermented with lactic acid bacteria at 2736°C yielded astaxanthin (Pacheco et al. Shrimp waste was fermented by lactic acid bacteria and the generated slurry was lyophilized. The bioactive protein derivatives along with carotenoid content could be developed as fish feed (Sachindra and Bhaskar, 2008). Both enzymes are useful for myriad food processing, so the shrimp shell waste could be effectively purposed (Wang et al. Supercritical fluid extraction of tiger shrimp shell with ethanol yielded astaxanthin, lutein, and -carotene (Radzali et al. Food waste was hydrolyzed by Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae and the hydrolysate was used to grow heterotrophic microalgae Schizochytrium mangrovei and Chlorella pyrenoidosa (Pleissner et al. The microalgal biomass very efficiently utilized the nutrients in the medium as 400 mg carbohydrates/g, 200 mg proteins/g, and 200 mg lipids/g conversion was reported (Lau et al. The growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and kefir by solid-state fermentation of various food industry waste mixtures was investigated. The fat- and proteinrich product could be used to add value to feeds (Aggelopoulos et al. This innovative approach is akin to and as crucial as rescuing nutrients from wastes.
Pulse consumption has been inversely associated with cardiovascular diseases medicine assistance programs order discount olanzapine online, increasing hepatic secretion of cholesterol by partially interrupting the enterohepatic circulation of the bile acids treatment bladder infection generic olanzapine 5mg on line, an effect attributed to phytosterols (Duane symptoms quitting tobacco buy 2.5mg olanzapine overnight delivery, 1997) medicine daughter effective 7.5 mg olanzapine. The microorganisms involved in legume fermentation hydrolyze and metabolize seed constituents resulting in the production of derived-valuable products and have the ability to produce antimicrobial compounds and desirable organic acids that can preserve the food by the suppression of the growth and survival of undesirable microflora. Thus fermentation provides several advantages over other conventionally feasible methods of legume processing, in addition to being less expensive (Leroy and De Vuyst, 2004; Steinkraus, 1996). The positive changes in protein quality of pulses during lactic-acid fermentation have been reported by several researchers. In the production of dosa, fermentation of black gram led to a slight increase in the proteinase activity that brings about an increase in the total nitrogen, soluble proteins (Soni et al. The replacement of black gram by mung bean produced more nutritious batters in terms of total nitrogen, protein, and free amino acids (Soni and Sandhu, 1989). Idli products provide larger limiting amino-acid scores and in vitro protein digestibility than unfermented seeds (Riat and Sadana, 2009). In addition, the active yeast fermentation of different varieties of cowpeas, peas, and kidney beans improved the protein chemical score and essential amino-acid index, contributing to the overall protein quality (Khattab et al. Similarly, chickpeas, common beans, and bambara groundnut tempeh foods exhibited higher in vitro protein digestibility, total amino-acid content, available Lys, as well as the calculated protein efficiency ratio than raw flour (Angulo-Bejarano et al. In addition, certain strains of Rhizopus exhibited higher proteolytic activity by releasing several times more amino acids than other strains (Baumann and Bisping, 1995). Protein inhibitors are widely reduced after pulse fermentation, contributing to the enhancement of the overall protein quality. Trypsin inhibitory activity was mostly eliminated during the preparation of tempeh-like products from cowpeas, ground beans, and chickpeas, and a concomitant increase on protein digestibility was achieved (Abu-Salem and Abou-Arab, 2011; Hemalatha et al. Seed hull contains a considerable amount of insoluble fiber and this fraction can be removed when dehulled grains (dhals) are the starting material of fermented derived products. Hence, the dehulling process led to an increase in fiber solubility, palatability, digestibility and overall nutritive quality (Nalle et al. Soaking contributes to the hydration of the seeds and causes the leaching effect in soluble carbohydrates and heat treatment further provokes the starch gelatinization and enhances starch digestibility (VidalValverde et al. Fermented pulses provide an important source of carbohydrates (5070%) (Abu-Salem and Abou-Arab, 2011; Sotomayor et al. Starch degradation is a complex biochemical process that is modulated by endogenous pulse enzymes and those provided by fermentative microorganisms (Sotomayor et al. Endogenous and microbial amylases play an important role during pulse fermentation and increased activity in the early stages was shown that declined gradually with the fermentation progress (Soni et al. During the hydrolysis of starch, amylose and amylopectin decrease gradually over the course of fermentation and reducing sugars are produced (Audu and Aremu, 2011; Fermented Pulses in Nutrition and Health Promotion Chapter 16 399 Soni and Sandhu, 1989; Sotomayor et al. Several reports have identified that lactic-acid fermentation notably increases the starch digestibility of pulses (Bhandal, 2008; Vidal-Valverde et al. However, mixed-culture fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus and Aspergillus oryzae brought about less in vitro bioavailability of sugars (Abu-Salem and Abou-Arab, 2011; StarzyskaJaniszewska et al. There is a large body of information on the reduction of raffinose family oligosaccharides during the lactic-acid fermentation of pulses, making the final products more acceptable by relieving flatulence discomfort and intestinal cramps (Frias et al. Similar results have been reported for cowpea natto, where Bacillus subtilis led to the total removal of raffinose, stachyose, and verbascose, and in vitro and in vivo studies exhibited considerable fermentability depletion (Madodй et al. However, fungal fermentation seems to be less effective in -galactoside removal (Egounlety and Aworh, 2003; Starzyska-Janiszewska et al. Many efforts have been made to reduce the amount of phytate in legumes, and fermentation has been identified as one of the most effective treatments. This is due to acidic conditions occurring during fermentation that increase the phytase activity leading to phytic-acid degradation and hence a larger mineral availability is achieved (Yadav et al. Phyticacid degradation in legumes during fermentation depends on many processing parameters such as time and temperature (Kozlowska et al. In this sense, it has been noted that traditional Indian idli and dosa breakfasts provide a 69% reduction of phyticacid content and an increase in Ca and Fe availability (Krishnamoorthy et al. The Zn bioaccesibility in those fermented products increased 71% and 50%, respectively, and to a greater extent the Fe bioaccesibility 277% and 127%, respectively (Hemalatha et al. These foods are well accepted for Indian children and are recommended for malnourishment (Dahiya et al. It has also been reported that solid-state fermentation contributes to the reduction in phytic-acid content (Reyes-Moreno et al.
The vertical diffusion term is readily transformed in the new coordinate system: z E a z = 1 s E a s medicine rocks state park buy cheap olanzapine 5 mg online, (20 symptoms 2 months pregnant generic 5mg olanzapine with mastercard. Besides the isopycnal transform with s = or s = -/ symptoms vaginal cancer order olanzapine with amex, another coordinate change is the so-called coordinate system medications education plans purchase olanzapine visa, a particular form of terrain-following coordinates. All topographic slopes and free surface movements are naturally followed, avoiding the problem of discretizing equations in a changing domain. Also, calculation points are efficiently used because they all fall into the water column (0 1), and vertical boundary conditions are straightforward. Moreover, and this is the main advantage in coastal modeling, grid points are more closely spaced in shallow water than in deep water, providing the highest vertical resolution where it is the most needed (Figure 20-17). Although the problem was initially identified for the coordinate, it is more general, and we describe it here in a general coordinate framework. For the second and third expressions, the Jacobian operator J is defined as J(a, b) = (a/x)(b/s) - (a/s)(b/x) in the transformed space. A standard test for terrain-following models is to prescribe density and pressure fields that depend solely on z. In this way, the horizontal pressure gradient should be identically zero, and no motion should be generated in the absence of external driving forces. Due to the different nature of the two terms, however, even very careful numerical discretization will most likely leave a residual that acts as a nonzero pressure force and hence generates unphysical horizontal motion. The main problem is that this error is most often not small because the vertical variation of pressure p(z) is very large and taking the pressure gradient along a sloping s direction entails a large vertical component. Should we argue that the problem would be eliminated with increased resolution, another problem would appear, the problem of so-called hydrostatic consistency: By increasing resolution more rapidly in the vertical than the horizontal direction, the numerical stencil involved in the calculation of a horizontal pressure gradient may involve grid points vertically too far away, and horizontal derivatives may be evaluated by extrapolation instead of interpolation. Such extrapolation leads to large relative errors (see Numerical Exercise 3-5) as well as to an inconsistency. For simple finite difference schemes, extrapolations are avoided if the following criterion between slopes is met: z/x s z/s s, x (20. Contrary to the problem in Figure 20-13, we now have a lower bound for vertical grid spacing, in relation to the slope of the coordinate surfaces. Alternatively, for a fixed vertical grid and given slopes, the requirement imposes a horizontal grid that must be sufficiently fine to resolve the slopes accurately. For the -coordinate8, this translates into a constraint that involves the water column 8 We neglect here any surface gradient for the sake of simplicity. For a uniform grid in space, the constraint is the most severe for the bottom layer. Hence, the worst problems will be encountered where the topography is shallow but steep, such as near a shelf break, where the length scale related to topography (1/h)(h/x) -1 is shortest and must be resolved by the grid spacing. This length scale thus appears as an additional scale to be considered in the design of horizontal grids. Since stratification on the shelf break is typically intersecting topography, problems with the pressure gradient will be exacerbated: Regions of large variations in coincide with regions of large z/x s, and the two contributions to the horizontal pressure force are large, leading to a significant numerical error. Solutions to this problem include higher-order finite differencing (using more grid points and being less prone to extrapolations . With the aforementioned provision for the proper treatment of the pressure gradient, a generalized vertical coordinate can be very attractive, and several models have implemented the approach. The general rule for the placement of coordinate surfaces is to match as closely as possible the surface on which physical properties remain smooth (Figure 20-18, see also adaptive grids in Section 15. In ocean circulation models, grids should therefore follow closely density surfaces in the ocean interior, where mixing is weak. Because a density coordinate is ill-suited to represent mixed layers, the use of the z coordinate should be preferred near the surface. For further improvement, the vertical coordinate near the bottom may be made to follow the topography and thus behave as a coordinate. Up to this point, subgrid-scale processes other than turbulence were modeled by horizontal diffusion such as D(c) = x A c x + y A c y (20. One question that arises is whether the derivatives in this expression ought to be those in Cartesian coordinates or in any other set of coordinates.
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