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Goals gone wild: the systematic side effects of over-prescribing goal setting (Working Paper 09083) purchase pregabalin visa. This is due to the fact that as more schools add project-based learning to the curriculum 150mg pregabalin, students need library skills to conduct research which is essential to completing their projects generic 150 mg pregabalin amex. Most importantly purchase pregabalin with a visa, students must master library skills in order to navigate problems which they might encounter in a real-life setting. Keywords: cognitive skills, personal skills, inter-personal skills, competencies, library skills, Web 2. The convergence of diverse philosophical and pedagogical concepts such as creation of new cognitive authorities, knowledge construction through individual learning styles, autonomy of the learner in formal educational contexts or the increasing role of informal learning promote innovative pedagogical approaches and models of to enhance learning. Online applications are increasingly ubiquitous, social, and participatory (Jenkins, 2006; Valkenburg & Peter, 2009). Similarly, the studies carried out by Riza Ayu and Abrizah (2011) and Aziz, Arif, Ramly, Abdullah, and Husaini (2011) found out that Facebook is the most popular social media used by the academic libraries in Malaysia. In fact, the rise of online communities such as Facebook facilitates a participatory culture where individuals must develop literacies such as networking, information appropriation, remix, judgment, and collective intelligence. This is due to the fact that most of the students (generation Y and Z) access Web 2. To support this remark, the latest research done by Mohd Ismail and Kiran (2012) indicated that the main purpose of Web 2. Research Aims and Methodology the main purpose of this research is to investigate the use of Web 2. It also indirectly raises awareness about this application among library users in Malaysia. In addition, this research also aims to identify the extent of the service acceptance among users, and also to see how this application helps users in the education and learning process. It is compatible with the latest Malaysian social lifestyle where government promotes virtual learning or blended learning. A total of 657 library patrons from various walks of life participated in this study. This shows that many respondents do not like or show less interest to surf the Internet in the library. However, a survey conducted by Mohd Ismail and Kiran (2013) found that restrictions or limitation in the usage of Web 2. Based on the figure below, the majority of respondents are aware or familiar with web 2. The highest majority of respondents who used or were aware of the existence of these applications lived in an urban area (287 respondents). Interestingly, Facebook was rated as the most popular application among respondents (84%). The data showed a very large gap between respondents who have used this application in general and respondents who have never used Web 2. The majority of respondents were aware of or knew about this service from libraries portal (34. Interestingly, the influence from friends also contributed to the relatively high percentage (33. We assumed that public/academic libraries actively promote these applications among their users through the figure below. The figure shows respondents were aware of these applications through the information that they saw in libraries banner/bunting (22. From the data below (see figure 5), it was found that the highest percentage of respondents evaluate the use of these four categories were in neutral (between always use it or not use it). The data also showed that the service most respondents used is to obtain library materials (30. From the figure below (figure 6), the results indicated that the highest number of the respondents perceived that the application was at the level of "Good" and "Satisfactory". The highest score is by 40% of respondents which rated "Satisfactory" for the library response time and "Good" for the quality of information (41. More interesting, less than 5 % was rated "Unsatisfactory" and "very unsatisfactory" for their 341 experience in using this service, which mean that this application is acceptable use by the respondent.
Imaging Plain X-rays may show fractures order 75 mg pregabalin overnight delivery, deformity discount pregabalin 75 mg online, soft tissue swelling 150 mg pregabalin sale, decreased bone density order pregabalin paypal, osteolytic and osteosclerotic areas suggestive of metastases, joint erosions, joint space narrowing and new bone formation. X-rays may be normal in early inflammatory arthritis but are used as a baseline for later comparison. Bone scintigraphy (isotope bone scan) uses a tracer (99Tc-bisphosphonate), which, following intravenous injection, localizes to sites of increased bone turnover and blood circulation. Arthroscopy is a direct means of visualizing the inside of a joint, particularly the knee or shoulder. Synovial fluid analysis A needle is inserted into a joint for three main reasons: aspiration of synovial fluid for diagnosis or to relieve pressure, and injection of corticosteroid or local anaesthetic. The most common indications for joint aspiration are evaluation for sepsis in a single inflamed joint (p. Synovial fluid should be analysed for colour, viscosity, cell count, culture, glucose and protein. Investigation of suspected muscle disease Suspected muscle disease may be investigated by rheumatologists or neurologists. The diagnosis of most of these conditions is usually clinical and initial treatment is with painkillers. There is unilateral or bilateral pain which may radiate upwards to the occiput and often is associated with tension headaches. Nerve root compression by cervical disc prolapse or spondylotic osteophytes causes unilateral neck pain radiating to interscapular and shoulder regions (see below). Rotator cuff injury and inflammation is one of the most common causes of shoulder pain. The rotator cuff muscles (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, teres minor) are positioned around the shoulder joint. The muscular tendons join to form the rotator cuff tendon, which inserts into the humerus. Ultrasound examination is the best investigation to differentiate between these causes. There is local tenderness and pain radiates into the forearm on using the affected muscles. Hip problems Pain arising from the hip joint itself is felt in the groin, lower buttock and anterior thigh, and may radiate to the knee. Fracture of the femoral neck (pain in the hip, usually after a fall, leg shortened and externally rotated) or avascular necrosis of the femoral head (severe hip pain in a patient with risk factors, p. Pain over the trochanter which is worse going up stairs and when abducting the hip can be due to trochanteric bursitis or a tear of the gluteus medius tendon at its insertion into the trochanter. Meralgia paraesthetica (lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh compression) causes numbness and increased sensitivity to light touch over the anterolateral thigh. The knee is a frequent site of sports injuries that lead to torn menisci and cruciate ligaments. The knee is also frequently involved in inflammatory arthritides, osteoarthritis and pseudogout. Treatment is with analgesics, rest with the leg elevated, aspiration and injection of corticosteroids into the knee joint. The history, physical examination and simple investigations will also often identify the minority of patients with other causes of back pain (Table 7. The age of the patient helps in deciding the aetiology of back pain because certain causes are more common in particular age groups. The key points are age, speed of onset, the presence of motor or sensory symptoms, involvement of the bladder or bowel, the presence of stiffness and the effect of exercise. Young adults with a history suggestive of mechanical back pain and with no physical signs do not need further investigation. Prostate-specific antigen should be measured if secondary prostatic disease is suspected.
Hepatitis 153 Differential diagnosis this includes other causes of jaundice and in particular other types of viral and drug-induced hepatitis order pregabalin paypal. Hospital admission is not usually necessary and avoidance of alcohol is advised only when the patient is ill effective pregabalin 75mg. Travellers to high-risk areas should drink only boiled or bottled water and avoid suspicious food buy pregabalin 75mg with amex. Vertical transmission from mother to child during parturition is the most common method of transmission world-wide purchase pregabalin in india. This surface coat is excessively produced by the infected hepatocytes and can exist separately from the whole virion in serum and body fluid. These genotypes may influence the chance of responding to interferon treatment (A > B; C > D) but all genotypes respond equally well to nucleoside analogues. This results in changes in the antibody binding domain and may confer resistance to the vaccine. Acute infection may be asymptomatic or produce symptoms and signs similar to those seen in hepatitis A. Occasionally it is associated with a rash or polyarthritis affecting the small joints. Progression from acute to chronic infection 156 Liver, biliary tract and pancreatic disease Table 4. This phase may persist for two to three decades before an immune clearance phase that lasts for a variable period of time occurs. Acquisition of infection later in life is associated with a very short immune tolerance phase or none at all. Most patients clear the virus (see acute infection) and only a small percentage will progress to chronic infection. Treatment Hepatitis 157 is given to patients most likely to develop progressive liver disease. All patients need long-term follow-up with annual assessment of hepatitis B serology and liver biochemistry, as transition to an active phase is common. Interferon is an immunostimulator which induces an immune response leading to prolonged remission after discontinuation of therapy. Alternatively, entecavir and tenofovir are oral nucleotides that suppress viral replication. Long-term viral suppression has been shown to reverse fibrosis and even patients with cirrhosis respond with reversion of the fibrosis. Resistance is rarely seen with these agents, and older, more resistance-prone drugs like lamivudine are no longer recommended. However, the majority of patients who commence oral antiviral agents will require very prolonged treatment, perhaps for life. Prophylaxis the avoidance of high-risk factors (needle sharing, sex workers and multiple male homosexual partners) and counselling of patients who are potentially 158 Liver, biliary tract and pancreatic disease infective are key aspects of prevention. Active immunization with a recombinant yeast vaccine is universal in most developed countries. It is common in some parts of the world including Eastern Europe (Romania, Bulgaria), North Africa and the Brazilian rainforest. Acute hepatic failure can follow both types of infection but is more common after co-infection. Chronic hepatitis D is an infrequent chronic hepatitis but spontaneous resolution is rare. In 15% of cases, the disease is rapidly progressive with development of cirrhosis in a few years. Treatment for patients with active liver disease is with pegylated -2a interferon for 12 months, although response rates are very low. The virus is transmitted by blood and blood products and was common in persons with haemophilia treated before screening of blood products was introduced. Vertical transmission from a healthy mother to child can occur, but is rare ($5%). Most acute infections are asymptomatic, with about 10% of patients having a mild flu-like illness with jaundice and a rise in serum aminotransferases.
Another important element of religion discussed by Berger21 in his outline of the social constructionist approach is the idea of plausibility structures order pregabalin with paypal. According to Berger pregabalin 75mg sale, the reality of the Christian world depends upon the presence of social structures within which this reality is taken for granted and within which successive generations of individuals are socialized in such a way that this world will be real to them purchase pregabalin. When this plausibility structure loses its intactness or continuity purchase pregabalin master card, the Christian world begins to totter and its reality ceases to impose itself as self-evident truth. Another important element to consider of plausibility structures is mentioned by Berger, "When an entire society serves as the plausibility structure for a religiously legitimated world, all the important social processes within it serve to confirm and reconfirm the reality of this world" (p. A good example of this may be Iran, where everything is structured to reinforce the Islamic faith as reality. It is perhaps summarized as an attitude which rejects focus on immaterial differences and instead gives respect to those beliefs held in common. The existence of religious pluralism depends on the existence of freedom of religion. Freedom of religion is when different religions of a particular region possess the same rights of worship and public expression. Freedom of religion is consequently weakened when one religion is given rights or privileges denied to others, as in certain European countries where Roman Catholicism or regional forms of Protestantism have special status. Religious Pluralism has also been argued to be a factor in the continued existence of religion in the U. This theoretical approach24 proposes that because no religion was guaranteed a monopoly in the U. As a result, religions are now better understood as capitalist corporations peddling their wares in a highly competitive market than they are as monopolistic Churches like Roman Catholicism was prior to the Reformation25 (or, some might argue, still is in Latin America) or as small, fervent, protest-like sects are. Because religions are good at marketing themselves as the providers of social psychological compensators (see below), they have been successful. For instance, science may not be able to address the question of what happens when someone dies other than to provide a biological explanation. Science is also unable to address the question of a higher purpose in life other than simply to reproduce. Altemeyer and Hunsberger (1997), in their book Amazing Conversions, note that one of the primary motivations for people to seek religion was fear of the unknown; specifically, fear of the after-life and what it portends. While fear likely does not motivate all religious people, it certainly is a factor for some. Religion can provide a non-falsifiable answer to the question of what happens after people die. Such answers can provide comfort for individuals who want to know what will happen when they die. Thus, religion can provide a goal and purpose in life for people who believe they need one. Children are socialized into religion by their parents and their peers and, as a result, they tend to stay in religions. Despite these rare exceptions, the process of socialization is certainly a significant factor in the continued existence of religion. Combined, these three social-psychological components explain, with the help of religious pluralism, the continued high levels of religiosity in the U. People are afraid of things they do not understand (death), they feel they need a purpose in life to be happy (a. A detailed description of these religions is beyond the scope of this chapter and the interested reader is encouraged to follow the above links for more information. The classification of these groups as world religions is, like all classifications, artificial. Considering the remarkable dissimilarity between these five religious bodies, that they are grouped together at all is remarkable. Additionally, the religions of the book have numerous branches, some so dissimilar that there is more contention within the world religions than between them (e.
Collections of people that do not use the self-referent pronoun "we" but share certain characteristics (e order 150mg pregabalin with amex. Such collections are referred to as categories of people rather than groups; examples include: police order discount pregabalin on-line, soldiers cheap pregabalin amex, millionaires discount 75 mg pregabalin with mastercard, women, etc. There are some rather obvious ones, like reproduction, protection, trade, and food production. But social categorization4 of people into groups and categories also facilitates behavior and action. Because you have been socialized6 into society, you know that the red lights mean you should pull over, so you do. After waiting for a minute or two, an individual in a uniform walks 4 5 6 en. You roll down your window and the individuals asks you for your "license and registration. In short, because you recognize that the individual driving the car belongs to a specific social category (or group), you can enter this interaction with a body of knowledge that will help guide your behavior. You do not have to learn how to interact in that situation every single time you encounter it. Social categorization of people into groups and categories is a heuristic9 device that makes social interaction easier. As developed by Tajfel, Social Identity Theory is a diffuse but interrelated group of social psychological theories concerned with when and why individuals identify with, and behave as part of, social groups, adopting shared attitudes to outsiders. It is also concerned with what difference it makes when encounters between individuals are perceived as encounters between group members. Social Identity Theory is thus concerned both with the psychological and sociological aspects of group behavior. We use social categories like black, white, Australian, Christian, Muslim, student, and busdriver because they are useful. If we can assign people to a category then that tells us things about those people. Similarly, we find out things about ourselves by knowing what categories we belong to . We define appropriate behaviour by reference to the norms of groups we belong to , but you can only do this if you can tell who belongs to your group. In other words, sometimes we think of ourselves as group members and at other times we think of ourselves as unique individuals. This varies situationally, so that we can be more or less a group member, depending upon the circumstances. What is crucial for our purposes is that thinking of yourself as a group member and thinking of yourself as a unique individual are both parts of your self-concept. The first is referred to as social identity, the latter is referred to as personal identity. In social identity theory, group membership is not something foreign which is tacked onto the person, it is a real, true and vital part of the person. The other meaning implied by the concept of identity is the idea that we are, in some sense, the same, or identical to other people. This should not be misinterpreted, when we say that we are the same, we mean that for some purposes we treat members of our groups as being similar to ourselves in some relevant way. To take the most extreme example, in some violent conflict such as a war, the members of the opposite group - the outgroup13 - are treated as identical and completely different to the those people in your group - the ingroup14 - which is made up of distinct individuals. There is pretty good evidence that to deal effectively with the world we need to feel good about ourselves. The idea of social comparison is that in order to evaluate ourselves we compare ourselves with similar others. We often gain self-esteem by comparing ourselves with others in our group, particularly if we can claim membership in a prestigious group. The prestige of a group is also often created through comparisons that positively reflect on the group.