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She was a post-doctoral fellow in endocrinology and metabolism at Emory University and in lipid biochemistry at the Medical College of Pennsylvania asthma symptoms flem cheap ventolin 100mcg with mastercard. He served 13 years in the Department of Nutrition of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine asthma treatment with prednisone purchase ventolin in united states online, followed by 10 years at the Rowett Research Institute in Aberdeen asthma treatment 6 month old generic 100mcg ventolin visa, Scotland asthmatic bronchitis nursing care plan order ventolin american express. His research has concentrated on the nutritional control of protein and amino acid metabolism in health and disease, especially on studies in humans employing stable isotope tracers, leading to 140 original scientific articles. Garlick is a foreign adjunct professor of the Karolinska Institute, Sweden, and has served on several editorial boards. He has published over 200 original papers as well as numerous solicited articles and book chapters. Grundy served as editor-in-chief of the Journal of Lipid Research for five years and is on the editorial boards of the American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism, Arteriosclerosis, and Circulation. Williams Award in preventive nutrition, and the Bristol Myers Squibb/Mead Johnson Award for Distinguished Achievement in Nutrition Research. Her research is focused on the bioavailability and health effects of soy isoflavones and other naturally occurring, potentially health-protective food components and foodborne toxicants, such as fumonisins. She is also a member of the American Society for Clinical Nutrition and the American Society for Nutritional Sciences. Her awards include the University of British Columbia Postdoctoral Research Prize, American Institute of Nutrition Travel Award, Borden Award, and Faculty of Medicine Distinguished Medical Lecturer. Jenkins has served on committees in Canada and the United States that have formulated nutritional guidelines for the treatment of diabetes. Awards include the Borden Award of the Canadian Society of Nutritional Sciences, the Goldsmith Award for Clinical Research of the American College of Nutrition, the Vahouny Medal for distinction in research in dietary fiber, and the McHenry Award of the Canadian Society of Nutritional Sciences. His research area is the use of diet in the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia and diabetes. Food and Drug Administration Food Advisory Committee/Additives and Ingredients Subcommittee (2001-present), American Dietetic Association Board of Directors (2002-2004), and the American Society for Nutritional Sciences. Johnson testified before the United States Senate Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Committee Hearing on Senate Bill S. He received his undergraduate and medical degrees from Harvard University with honors and served his internship and residency on the Harvard Medical Service of Boston City Hospital. He then joined the staff of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute in Bethesda, Maryland, first as a Clinical Associate and then as a Senior Investigator in the Molecular Disease Branch. Krauss is board-certified in internal medicine, endocrinology and metabolism, and is a member of the American Society for Clinical Investigation, the American Federation for Clinical Research, and the American Society of Clinical Nutrition. He has received a number of awards including the American Heart Association Scientific Councils Distinguished Achievement Award. His research involves studies on genetic, dietary, and hormonal effects on plasma lipoproteins and coronary disease risk. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University and the Stanley N. Lichtenstein has served on many committees of the American Society of Nutritional Sciences and the American Heart Association, where she currently serves as vice-chair of the Nutrition Committee. She is on the editorial boards of Atherosclerosis and Journal of Lipid Research and on the editorial advisory boards of Nutrition in Clinical Care and the Tufts University Health & Nutrition. Her research interesting include the areas of plasma lipoprotein response to dietary modification with respect to fatty acids, protein, phytoestrogens, and plant sterols, and the effect of diet on lipoprotein kinetic behavior. She is specifically interested in the response of older, moderately hypercholesterolemic individual to dietary modification with the intent to decrease risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Lupton has served on the Nutrition Study Section at the National Institutes of Health and is associate editor of the Journal of Nutrition and Nutrition and Cancer. Lupton is also the Associate Program Leader for Nutrition and Exercise Physiology for the National Space Biomedical Research Institute. Her expertise is the effect of dietary fibers on colonic lumenal contents, colonic cell proliferation, signal transduction, and colon carcinogenesis. Her principal research interests are the role of dietary fiber in human nutrition and in the human gastrointestinal tract and nutrient bioavailability. He previously was the dean of the Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences and a professor in the Departments of Biochemistry and Medicine at the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio.

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Yogurt as a substitute for fluid milk: Comments: the majority of stakeholders (85 comments) that commented on allowing yogurt to substitute for fluid milk once per day asthma definition 2-dimensional shapes purchase ventolin line, for adults only asthma symptoms explained discount ventolin american express, supported it asthma definition 7 stages buy ventolin 100 mcg online. This allowance was first provided via the September 2011 memorandum discussed under the section below titled Children 2 years old and older asthma treatment by zubaida apa proven 100mcg ventolin, and requires a parent or guardian, or by, or on behalf of, an adult participant to request the substitution in writing, without a medical statement. Several commenters (25 comments), including dietitians and nutritionists, providers, and industry associations, opposed the provision primarily because of the unavailability of fat-free flavored milk. In regards to a sugar limit, more commenters (4,400 comments; 4,190 form letters) favored prohibiting flavored milk (A1) over requiring flavored milk to meet a sugar limit for children 2 through 4 years old (A2). State agencies, a Federal agency, a pediatric health care provider, advocacy groups, sponsoring organizations, dietitians and nutritionists, and providers supported A1 because flavored milk has no nutritional benefit over unflavored milk, contributes to increased sugar consumption, obesity, and tooth decay, and is not appropriate for this age group when taste preferences are being formed. A State agency and a health care association asserted that flavored milk is rarely served, which would suggest that compliance with A1 would have minimal burden on providers. Those in support (55 comments) of setting a sugar limit on flavored milk for children 2 through 4 years old (A2), including professional associations, advocacy groups, State agencies, sponsoring organizations, dietitians and nutritionists, and providers, did not want to prohibit flavored milk and expressed concern that requiring unflavored milk would promote food waste as some children will not drink unflavored milk. These commenters argued that it is better for children to drink chocolate milk, rather than no milk at all. Similarly, two professional associations asserted that flavored milk is an effective tool in encouraging milk consumption for school-age children. For children 5 years old and older, and adults, many more commenters favored requiring a sugar limit on flavored milk (B1) than establishing a best practice (B2). Those in support of alternative B1 (3,440 comments; 3,330 form letters), including State agencies, a Federal agency, advocacy groups, sponsoring organizations, dietitians and nutritionists, and providers, cited concerns around flavored milk contributing to increased sugar intake and felt that the requirement would not be burdensome. Those in support of alternative B2 (290 comments; 240 form letters) favored a best practice because it would reduce the monitoring and compliance burden while a requirement would increase complexity of the Program. A dairy association added that it may be difficult to find flavored milks within the sugar limit in retailer stores. A health care association, however, affirmed that the allowance should not be extended to children because milk provides nutrients such as vitamins A and D, and comparable quantities of these nutrients are not found in many commercially available yogurts. As noted by a commenter, milk provides a wealth of nutrients growing children need, such as vitamin A and D, and comparable quantities of these nutrients are not currently found in commercially available yogurts. In addition, the Dietary Guidelines emphasizes it is important to establish in young children the habit of drinking milk, as those who consume milk at an early age are more likely to drink milk when they are older. Non-dairy beverages: Comments: Commenters supported (120 comments) allowing non-dairy beverages that are nutritionally equivalent to milk to be served in lieu of fluid milk for children and adults with medical or special dietary needs. Numerous commenters, including State agencies, advocacy organizations, dietitians and nutritionists, and providers, asserted that this provision makes it easier for child and adult participants with medical or special dietary needs to receive a substitution. One provider asserted that parents should be able to choose what their child drinks as a milk substitute. Some research also shows that flavor and food preferences are shaped early in life, and that the more sweet foods children consume, the more they prefer sweet foods. This illustrates the need to ensure children develop healthy eating habits from a young age, including avoiding the consumption of added sugars. Some commenters expressed concern that prohibiting flavored milk for younger children would be burdensome. Additionally, market research indicates that in the retailer setting there is, in general, a limited selection of fat-free flavored milks within the proposed sugar limit. While the amount of sugar in flavored milk has decreased over the past few years, only about half of fat-free flavored milks available in the retail setting contain no more than 22 grams of sugar per 8 fluid ounces. While providers may serve only unflavored milk, complying with a sugar limit on flavored milk when choosing to serve flavored milk may be particularly difficult or infeasible for providers living in rural areas with limited options. In recognition of these challenges, this final rule establishes a best practice on the sugar content of flavored milk for children 6 years old and older, and adults (B2). Some research shows that flavored milk consumption among children is associated with improved diet quality and increased nutrient intakes, such as calcium, folate, and iron.

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Species vary in their response and many fish species acclimate to noise and vibration asthma symptoms facts discount 100mcg ventolin with mastercard, although Copyright National Academy of Sciences asthma and smoking cheap ventolin 100mcg fast delivery. Vibration through floors can be reduced by using isolation pads under aquaria racks asthma and omega-3 best 100mcg ventolin. In some poikilothermic reptiles and amphibians asthma treatment in the 60s buy generic ventolin from india, microenvironmental temperature gradients may be needed for certain physiologic functions such as feeding and digestion. The implications of a barren versus an enriched environment on well-being, general research, growth, and development are unknown or poorly defined, as is true of individual versus group (social) Copyright National Academy of Sciences. When used, enrichment should elicit speciesappropriate behaviors and be evaluated for safety and utility. Generally, schooling fish species are housed with conspecifics, and many amphibians, especially anuran species, may be group housed. Improved breeding success in enriched environments has been reported but further research in this area is needed (Carfagnini et al. Most semiaquatic reptiles spend some time on land (basking, feeding, digesting, and ovipositing) and terrestrial areas should be provided as appropriate. Sheltered, Outdoor, and Naturalistic housing Animals used in aquaculture are often housed in situations that mimic agricultural rearing and may be in outdoor and/or sheltered raceways, ponds, or pens with high population densities. In these settings, where natural predation and mortalities occur, it may be appropriate to measure animal "numbers" by using standard aquaculture techniques such as final production biomass (Borski and Hodson 2003). Space Space recommendations and housing density vary extensively with the species, age/size of the animals, life support system, and type of research (Browne et al. In the United States, for example, adult zebrafish (danio rerio) in typical biomedical research settings are generally housed 5 adult fish per liter of water (Matthews et al. This guidance is not necessarily relevant for other species of fish, and may change as research advances (Lawrence 2007). To avoid damage to the protective mucus layers of the skin and negative effects on immune function (De Veer et al. Appropriate handling techniques vary widely depending on the species, age/size, holding system, and specific research need (Fisher 2000; Matthews et al. The use of appropriate nets by well-trained personnel can reduce skin damage and thus stress. Nets should be cleaned and disinfected appropriately when used in different systems and should be dedicated to animals of similar health status whenever possible. Exercise and activity levels for aquatic species are minimally described but informed decisions may be extrapolated from studies of behavior of the same or similar species in the wild (Spence et al. Some aquatic species do not rest and constantly swim; others may rest all or a significant portion of the day. Food should be stored in a type-appropriate manner to preserve nutritional content, minimize contamination, and prevent entry of pests. Food delivery methods should ensure that all animals are able to access food for a sufficient period of time while minimizing feeding aggression and nutrient loss. Feeding methods and frequency vary widely depending on the species, age/size of species, and type of life support system. Many aquatic or semiaquatic species are not provided with food ad libitum in the tank, and in some cases may not be fed daily. In aquatic systems, particularly in fish rearing or when maintaining some amphibian and reptile species, the use of live foods. Live food sources need to be maintained and managed to ensure a Copyright National Academy of Sciences. Water (see also section on Water Quality) Aquatic animals need access to appropriately conditioned water. Fully aquatic animals obtain water in their habitat or absorb it across their gills or skin.

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Spinal anesthesia is probably safer (one study calculated 16 times safer) than general anesthesia asthma symptoms lungs cheap ventolin 100mcg on-line, provided it is performed carefully with good knowledge of maternal physiology asthma triggers in children cheap 100mcg ventolin fast delivery. Difficult airways and obesity-related edema become less of an issue asthma treatment through fish order ventolin cheap online, but remember that a pregnant woman lying supine can become hypotensive asthmatic bronchitis nih order 100mcg ventolin with amex, even without augmenting the problem by giving local anesthetics intrathecally. Poor management of this problem can cause severe hypotension, vomiting, and loss of consciousness, which can lead to aspiration of gastric contents. Occasionally, a parturient reaches the second stage of labor before neuraxial analgesia is requested. The patient may not have wanted an epidural catheter earlier, or the fetal heart rate tracing or position may necessitate assisted delivery. Initiation of epidural analgesia is still possible at this point, but the prolonged latency between catheter placement and start of adequate analgesia may make this choice less desirable than a spinal technique. On the other hand, the initiation of an epidural catheter cannot be done be too early. The argument that early catheter placement may prolong the first stage of labor has not be confirmed in studies. If an epidural is used, ultra-low concentrations of local anesthetics may not be adequate to relieve the intense pain of the second stage. Some medical conditions can cause additional problems, all related to poor compensatory response to rapid change in afterload in low cardiac output states. There are certain situations when a general anesthetic will be more appropriate than a regional one. These situations include maternal refusal of regional blockade, coagulopathy, low platelet count, anticipated or actual severe bleeding, local infection of the site of insertion of the spinal or epidural needle, anatomical problems, and certain medical conditions. Lack of time is the most common reason to choose general anesthesia, although for a skilled clinician, time is not an issue. If there is an epidural catheter in place, assessment and top-up should not take more than 10 minutes, which is usually more than enough time for the majority of circumstances. Maternal hypotension is a common complication of blockade of sympathetic nerves, most characteristically cardiac sympathetic nerves. This complication can lead to a sudden drop in heart rate with low cardiac output, and if aorto-caval compression is not avoided there will be persistent hypotension that can compromise the baby. The height of a sympathetic block can be a few dermatomes higher than the measured sensory level. This complication is seen more in women who come for elective sections more often than in those who are already in labor, because the reduced amount of fluids after the rupture of the membranes causes less aorto-caval compression, and because maternal physiological adjustments have already taken place. Supplementation of intraoperative analgesia can be used, when performed with vigilance for sedation. Regarding the risk of hemorrhage, it appears that there is less bleeding to be expected in cesarian section under regional blocks. In contrast, general anesthesia, when using inhalation agents, carries the risk of uterine relaxation and increased venous bleeding from pelvic venous plexuses. Although there is a traditionally held view that regional anesthesia should be avoided whenever hemorrhage is expected in gestosis, the favorable influence of regional blocks on this disease may on the contrary be an argument for regional anesthesia. Postoperative pain is better managed after regional anesthesia in both obstetric and nonobstetric patients, perhaps due to a reduction in centrally transmitted pain, as suggested in laboratory work. Postoperative recovery is improved, and mothers are able to bond with their babies sooner. The lack of drug effects in the newborn, seen when regional anesthesia is used, means less intervention for the baby. Whenever the newborn is already distressed and acidotic, attention must be paid to avoiding aortocaval compression and maternal hypotension. The full lateral position must be adopted in all mothers expected to develop severe hypotension.

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