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Then the nurse should assess the effectiveness of the medication periodically prostate cancer psa 01 cheap proscar 5mg on line, beginning 30 minutes after administration or sooner if the medication is being delivered by patient-controlled analgesia prostate cancer stage 4 discount proscar 5mg without a prescription. Opioid Analgesics About one third of patients report severe pain prostate exam procedure video generic proscar 5mg otc, one third moderate pain mens health 8 pack abs purchase proscar uk, and one third little or no pain. These statistics do not mean that the patients in the last group have no pain; rather, they appear to activate psychodynamic mechanisms that impair the registering of pain ("gate closing" theory and nociceptive transmission). See Chapter 13 for a more detailed discussion of pain and the factors influencing the pain experience. Opioid analgesics are commonly prescribed for pain and immediate postoperative restlessness. With a preventive approach, the medication is administered at prescribed intervals rather than when the pain becomes severe or unbearable. Study Sample and Design this was a descriptive, correlational, mixed between-within subjects design. A convenience sample of 94 nurses from four cardiovascular units in three university-affiliated hospitals were interviewed, along with 225 of their assigned patients. Findings the majority of patients reported moderate to severe pain during the previous 24 hours (86%) and at the time of interview while moving around (68%). Chart review data indicated undermedication of patients for pain, with patients receiving only 47% of their prescribed analgesia. While hospital policy required documentation of pain as a fifth vital sign, charting of pain was minimal and high pain ratings did not result in an increase in analgesics administered. This risk, however, is negligible with the use of opioid medications for short-term pain control. Self-administration promotes patient participation in care, eliminates delayed administration of pain medications, and maintains a therapeutic drug level. Upon sensing pain, the patient activates the medication-delivering pump with a hand-held button. Epidural Infusions and Intrapleural Anesthesia For thoracic, orthopedic, obstetric, and major abdominal surgery, certain opioid analgesics may be administered by epidural or intrathecal infusion. Epidural infusions are used with caution in chest procedures because the effect of the analgesic may ascend along the spinal cord and affect respiration. Intrapleural anesthesia involves the administration of local anesthetic by a catheter between the parietal and visceral pleura. It provides sensory anesthesia without affecting motor function to the intercostal muscles. This anesthesia allows more effective coughing and deep breathing in conditions such as cholecystectomy, renal surgery, and rib fractures in which pain in the thoracic region would interfere with these functions. A local opioid or a combination anesthetic (opioid plus local anesthetic agent) is used in the epidural infusion. Intrapleural anesthesia has fewer adverse effects than systemic or spinal opioids and a lower incidence of urinary retention, vomiting, and pruritus when compared with thoracic epidural opioids (Moline, 2001; Quinn, 1999). Other Pain Relief Measures For pain that is difficult to control, a subcutaneous pain management system may be used. The catheter is attached to a pump that delivers a continuous amount of local anesthetic at a specific amount determined and prescribed by the physician. Complete absence of pain in the area of the surgical incision may not occur for a few weeks, depending on the site and nature of surgery, but the intensity of postoperative pain gradually subsides on subsequent days. However, pain control continues to be an important concern for the patient and the nurse. Effective pain management allows the patient to participate in care, perform deep-breathing and leg exercises, and tolerate activity. As stated previously, poor pain control contributes to postoperative complications and increased length of stay. The nurse continues to assess the pain level, the effectiveness of pain medication, and factors that influence pain tolerance (eg, energy level, stress level, cultural background, meaning of pain to the patient). The nurse explains that taking pain medication before the pain becomes intense is more effective and offers pain medication at intervals rather than waiting for the patient to request medication. Nonpharmacologic pain relief measures, such as imagery, relaxation, massage, application of heat or cold (if prescribed), and distraction, can be used to supplement medications (Seers & Carroll, 1998).
Information on self-care activities and possible signs of infection are summarized in Chart 20-3 mens health workouts effective proscar 5 mg. Efforts are made to identify malignant hyperthermia and to treat it early and promptly (Redmond prostate biopsy side effects buy proscar 5 mg without prescription, 2001) prostate oncology wikipedia generic proscar 5mg without a prescription. Attention to hypothermia management prostate cancer exam age buy discount proscar 5mg on-line, begun in the intraoperative period, extends into the postoperative period to prevent significant nitrogen loss and catabolism. The room is maintained at a comfortable temperature, and blankets are provided to prevent chilling. Adhesive is not recommended because it is difficult to remove without possible injury to the incisional site. Avoid using aspirin without direction or instruction because bleeding can occur with its use. If the site continues to be red, thick, and painful to pressure after 8 weeks, consult the health care provider. The risk for hypothermia is greater in the elderly and in patients who were in the cool operating room environment for a prolonged period. Nausea and vomiting are common after anesthesia (Litwack, 1999; Meeker & Rothrock, 1999). They are more common in women, obese people (fat cells act as reservoirs for the anesthetic), patients prone to motion sickness, and patients who have undergone lengthy surgical procedures. Other causes of postoperative vomiting include an accumulation of fluid in the stomach, inflation of the stomach, and the ingestion of food and fluid before peristalsis resumes. When vomiting is likely because of the nature of surgery, a nasogastric tube is inserted preoperatively and remains in place throughout the surgery and the immediate postoperative period. In addition, a nasogastric tube may be inserted when a patient who has food in the stomach requires emergency surgery. Hiccups, produced by intermittent spasms of the diaphragm secondary to irritation of the phrenic nerve, can occur after surgery. The irritation may be direct, such as from stimulation of the nerve by a distended stomach, subdiaphragmatic abscess, or abdominal distention; indirect, such as from toxemia or uremia that stimulates the center; or reflexive, such as irritation from a drainage tube or obstruction of the intestines. When hiccups persist, they may produce considerable distress and serious effects such as vomiting, exhaustion, and wound dehiscence. The physician may prescribe phenothiazine medications for severe, persistent hiccups. Once nausea and vomiting have subsided and the patient is fully awake and alert, the sooner he or she can tolerate a usual diet, the more quickly normal gastrointestinal function will resume. Taking food by mouth stimulates digestive juices and promotes gastric function and intestinal peristalsis. The return to normal dietary intake should proceed at the pace set by the patient. Of course, the nature of surgery and the type of anesthesia directly affect the rate at which normal gastric activity resumes. Liquids are typically the first substances desired and tolerated by the patient after surgery. Soft foods (gelatin, custard, milk, and creamed soups) are added gradually after clear fluids have been tolerated. Assessment and management of gastrointestinal function are important after surgery because the gastrointestinal tract is subject to uncomfortable or potentially life-threatening complications. Postoperative distention of the abdomen results from the accumulation of gas in the intestinal tract. Manipulation of the abdominal organs during surgery may produce a loss of normal peristalsis for 24 to 48 hours, depending on the type and extent of surgery.
Use the nursing process as a framework for care of the patient with cirrhosis of the liver duke prostate oncology order 5mg proscar free shipping. Compare the nonsurgical and surgical management of patients with cancer of the liver man health daily lifestyle category buy proscar. Describe the postoperative nursing care of the patient undergoing liver transplantation androgen hormone therapy buy 5 mg proscar with visa. Another liver disorder is cancer: hepatocellular carcinoma is a highly malignant tumor that is difficult to treat and often fatal mens health xp buy proscar master card. In the United States, hepatocellular cancer accounts for less than 1% of all cancers, but in other parts of the world, it accounts for up to 50% of cancer cases. The difference is thought to be due to the percentage of the population who are carriers of the hepatitis B virus, which predisposes individuals to hepatocellular cancer. Liver cancer can originate in the liver or can metastasize to the liver from other sites. For this reason, the nurse must understand how the liver functions and must have expert assessment and clinical management skills to care for patients undergoing complex diagnostic and treatment procedures. The nurse also must understand technological advances in the management of liver disorders. Anatomic and Physiologic Overview the liver, the largest gland of the body, can be considered a chemical factory that manufactures, stores, alters, and excretes a large number of substances involved in metabolism. The liver is especially important in the regulation of glucose and protein metabolism. The bile produced by the liver is stored temporarily in the gallbladder until it is needed for digestion, at which time the gallbladder empties and bile enters the intestine. The circulation of the blood into and out of the liver is of major importance in its function. The remainder of the blood supply enters by way of the hepatic artery and is rich in oxygen. Terminal branches of these two blood supplies join to form common capillary beds, which constitute the sinusoids of the liver. Thus, a mixture of venous and arterial blood bathes the liver cells (hepatocytes). The sinusoids empty into a venule that occupies the center of each liver lobule and is called the central vein. The central veins join to form the hepatic vein, which constitutes the venous drainage from the liver and empties into the inferior vena cava, close to the diaphragm. In addition to hepatocytes, phagocytic cells belonging to the reticuloendothelial system are present in the liver. This surgical intervention is performed via a probe through which liquid nitrogen flows. In this way, the liver converts ammonia, a potential toxin, into urea, a compound that can be excreted in the urine. It synthesizes almost all of the plasma proteins (except gamma globulin), including albumin, alpha and beta globulins, blood clotting factors, specific transport proteins, and most of the plasma lipoproteins. Vitamin K is required by the liver for synthesis of prothrombin and some of the other clotting factors. Fatty acids can be broken down for the production of energy and the production of ketone bodies (acetoacetic acid, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetone). Ketone bodies are small compounds that can enter the bloodstream and provide a source of energy for muscles and other tissues. Breakdown of fatty acids into ketone bodies occurs primarily when the availability of glucose for metabolism is limited, as during starvation or in uncontrolled diabetes. Fatty acids and their metabolic products are also used for the synthesis of cholesterol, lecithin, lipoproteins, and other complex lipids. Under some conditions, lipids may accumulate in the hepatocytes, resulting in the abnormal condition called fatty liver. Their main function is to engulf particulate matter (such as bacteria) that enters the liver through the portal blood. The smallest bile ducts, called canaliculi, are located between the lobules of the liver.
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