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Across cultures zinc antimicrobial properties purchase floxin overnight delivery, people tend to rate faces that have even a minor scar as less sociable antibiotic resistance biofilm cheap floxin 200mg with visa, less attractive bacteria 1 negative hpf buy generic floxin on-line, and more dishonest than the same faces without the scar (Bull & David treatment for dogs conjunctivitis buy floxin 200mg without a prescription, 1986). Research in the fields of communications, psycholinguistics, and social psychology suggests that most people tend to make quick assessment of other people based on whether they speak with an accent (Giles, 1970; Kim, 1986). Research on social attribution provides some evidence that people across countries, despite many similarities, express different attributions. The Japanese, in general, rated the smiling faces only as more sociable and the neutral faces as more intelligent (Matsumoto, 1994). Without a sense of understanding, the world would seem unsafe, threatening, and dangerous. An important way of gaining this understanding is by seeking explanations for the causes of events in and around our lives. If we explain causations, the world may become more predictable and, therefore, controllable (Kelley, 1967). Rotter (1966) showed that, theoretically, people could be placed into two large groups. One group, the "internals" (those who have an internal locus of control), prefer to explain events as influenced by controllable internal factors. The other group, the "externals" (those who have an external locus of control), prefer to explain events as influenced by uncontrollable external factors. It has been shown in Chapter 10 Social Perception and Social Cognition 263 numerous studies that people with an external locus of control are more easily engaged in risky enterprises-such as gambling-than are internals. The "internals" are not easily persuaded and they tend to have stronger achievement motivation than externals. Early publications about locus of control inspired interest in testing its cross-cultural characteristics (Semin & Zwier, 1997). Do people in a particular region or culture display a particular locus of control? Could we say, for instance, that French men are more "externally controlled" than Chinese men? Or are collectivist cultures more likely to develop an external locus of control in its members? Most individuals born in Western countries are socialized to believe that people can control their destiny and are the masters of their fate. As such, society generally condones dispositional attributions and discourages situational attributions. One consequence, however, is that we frequently fool ourselves into overestimating the degree of control that we actually do have, while underestimating the impact of external factors that lie beyond our control. Put another way, we simply do not have as much control over people and events as we would like to believe that we do. Nevertheless, making dispositional attributions provides us with a comfortable illusion of control. Despite some exceptions, individuals from Western countries are more likely to display a stronger internal locus of control than non-Western people because "Westerners" are generally suspicious of powerful governments (external forces) and possess material resources that make them less dependent on external factors. If we follow this logic, are we justified in expecting every male who is a city dweller, is of a religious or ethnic majority, and has a high socioeconomic status to have an internal locus of control? Are we also making accurate predictions when we imply that every woman who is a minority from a rural area, with a low socioeconomic status will have an external locus of control? These expectations were not confirmed in comparative studies (Hui, 1982; Tobacyk, 1992). Overall, the general pattern for locus of control across the groups, countries, and cultures studied was inconsistent. A few studies, however, have yielded some differences between social groups, such as one revealing that ethnic minorities in the United States participate in lotteries more often than nonminorities (Chinoy & Babington, 1998). Why has cross-cultural research found little or no difference in locus of control among cultures? There could have been a methodological problem: the participants in these crosscultural studies were getting standard, preselected questions that could have had different meanings in different countries (Munro, 1986). There is also an opinion that the locus of control scores yielded in the studies could have reflected the actual, "individualized" degree of control that people exert in the real world, not only one determined by their social status and cultural identity (Collins, 1974; Dyal, 1984). For instance, a person is expected to have an external locus of control because he is poor and lives in a rural area controlled by an authoritarian government. However, this person is a father, a husband, an older brother, and a breadwinner for his family-the roles that would actually indicate an internal locus of control.

In many cases antibiotic mode of action order 200 mg floxin mastercard, the limited evidence in support of many practices drives the use of consensus as the basis for guidelines and improvement antibiotics for klebsiella uti floxin 200mg mastercard, while research continues to provide better evidence about effective interventions antibiotic resistance discount floxin 200mg amex. Despite this substantial body of work virus test order generic floxin on-line, most activities that aim to address health care quality for children and youth have addressed issues other than chronic conditions. Most of the efforts related to chronic conditions have focused on narrowly defined biological outcomes (for example, indicators of diabetes control) rather than on broader measures of disability and functioning. Although improving clinical outcomes has clear value, especially when clinical improvement can be linked with longer-term functioning and improved ability, this article argues for a focus on measures that directly address disability and functioning. Some of these conditions-perhaps especially the high prevalence ones-are appropriate targets for preventive efforts. Quality and improvement activities should address prevention of these conditions and especially the disabilities arising from having them. Childhood chronic conditions provide opportunities for both primary and secondary prevention, that is, preventing the onset of a condition and preventing the consequences of a condition, including disability and dysfunction (see the article by Stephen Rauch and Bruce Lanphear in this volume). Given the dramatic growth in diagnoses of some conditions and the resulting increase in rates of recognized disabilities among children and young adults, public health and welfare systems will face extraordinary demands in the next decade unless greater resources are allocated to prevention. Personal factors secondary prevention of disability focuses on measuring quality of life among children and youth with various chronic conditions, recognizing that these measures provide important indicators of status beyond traditional biological or physiologic assessments. The choice of measures and areas of concern must in part reflect the values of a society or the purposes of study, but researchers also should consider the items or areas that services might be expected to improve. Social and community factors have a major influence on functioning and participation in the activities of everyday life, and this influence may go well beyond the physical impact of a disability. Treating the disease directly may have limited impact on participation or functioning, while targeting functioning or quality of life could lead to a change in chosen interventions. In general, traditional medical treatments may have greater impact on biological measures (for example, blood pressure) but less effect on functioning or participation (such as getting to school or playing games). Improving disability among children and youth thus calls for comprehensive programs with sharply focused goals. These include the scope of the evaluation (whether the measurements are conducted at a single point in time or over a period of longer duration), the area being evaluated (type of disability, functioning, or quality of life), and whether the unit of observation and intervention is the child, the family, or society. Short Term versus Long Term; Cross-Sectional versus Longitudinal Much measurement of child health derives from cross-sectional (that is, point in time) data, a strategy that makes little sense in efforts to measure and improve chronic health conditions and their impact. Although cross-sectional studies allow assessment, for example, of access to or use of services, they do not allow measurement of whether the use of those services is associated with improvements in health and reductions in disability over time. That type of measurement clearly requires following individuals before and after the use of services. Typical preventive services such as those aimed at curbing tobacco use or involving exercise and diet may translate into improved health years or decades later. Nonetheless, some short-term targets merit attention, including the use and efficacy of medications, hospital and emergency department use, and the use and efficacy of specialized treatments such as speech, language, and occupational therapies. The need to improve the evidence base for these treatments and to apply quality-improvement strategies based on solid evidence seems particularly critical in pediatric psychopharmacology. Much pediatric hospitalization today involves children with very complex, often multisystem diseases. How much physical therapy should a child with cerebral palsy receive, how frequently, and for how long? What about behavioral interventions or speech therapy for young people with autism spectrum disorders, again areas where good evidence supports use in general but few data are available regarding scope and duration? It focuses attention on the effects of conditions on mobility and body function and structure, activities and limitations, and social participation, and provides a framework to examine how conditions interact with the environment (including family factors) to affect functioning. Typical Domains of Quality of Life Measures Physical functioning/role performance Psychological/emotional state Social interactions and functioning Education functioning Physical (somatic) symptoms* Disease-specific symptoms* Treatment effects* Other, less common domains: Views of the future Role of the family Source: Author. These measures have the value of applicability across conditions, providing a way to compare degrees of functioning and ability regardless of the specific disorder. They have proven useful in general studies of childhood disability and in assessing improvement. Quality of life measures assess characteristics across a broad spectrum, ranging from general factors (such as relationships, psychology, and participation) and general health-related considerations (for example, how much illness a person experiences or the extent to which illness interferes with important functions) to conditionspecific measures such as abdominal pain in inflammatory bowel disease and joint pain or bleeding in hemophilia. The prominence of family and community as determinants of child health raises the question of what unit of observation to use in measuring quality (and providing services).

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At least two contrasting views on the contemporary world bacterial transformation order discount floxin on-line, both valuable for cross-cultural psychology infection lines purchase line floxin, can be presented antibiotics for enterobacter uti discount floxin 200mg on-line. On one hand homeopathic antibiotics for sinus infection discount floxin 400 mg overnight delivery, in an increasingly interconnected world society, the concept of independent, coherent, and stable cultures becomes irrelevant. It is seen, for example, in the unprecedented expansion of tourism, the flourishing of multinational corporations and the emergence of new geographic entities. The European Community has been created and the International Monetary Fund continues to rescue many troubled national economies. The dissemination of pop culture, the increasing flow of migrants, the growth of ethnic diasporas, and the emergence of Internet communications are signs of the globalization of human culture. On the other hand, there is tremendous evidence in support of "global separation" of cultures and ethnic groups. Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and the Soviet Union have collapsed into 21 separate states. Ethnic and religious conflicts continue to tear apart Cyprus, Israel, India, Rwanda, Bosnia, South Africa, and many other countries. Ethnic groups continue to demand independence in Canada, Russia, Turkey, Iraq, and Serbia. Rapid growth of religious fundamentalism marked the recent social developments in many countries. Assignment: Please compare these two opposite trends: the separation and the globalization of cultures. As a comparative field, cross-cultural psychology draws its conclusions from at least two samples that represent at least two cultural groups. Cross-cultural psychology examines psychological diversity and the underlying reasons for such diversity. Using a comparative approach, cross-cultural psychology examines the links between cultural norms and behavior and the ways in which particular human activities are influenced by various cultural forces. Cross-cultural psychology establishes psychological universals, that is, phenomena common for people in several, many, or perhaps all cultures. Cultural psychology seeks to discover meaningful links between culture and psychology of individuals living in this culture. At least four types of knowledge about psychology can be recognized: scientific, popular (folk), ideological (value-based), and legal. Within the same cultural cluster there can be significant variations, inconsistencies, and dissimilarities. Among such dichotomies are high- versus low-power distance, high- versus low-uncertainly avoidance, masculinity versus femininity, and collectivism versus individualism. Evolutionary approach is a theoretical model that explores the ways in which biological factors affect human behavior and thus lay a natural foundation for human culture. The sociological approach focuses on broad social structures that influence society as a whole, and subsequently its individuals. There are particular social forces that shape the behavior of large social groups, and human beings develop and adjust their individual responses in accordance to the demands and pressures of larger social groups and institutions. According to an ecocultural approach to cross-cultural psychology, the individual cannot be separated from his or her environmental context. People constantly exchange messages with the environment, thus transforming it and themselves. According to a "culture mixtures" approach, researchers should switch their attention from traditional views on culture to new cultural mixtures, contact zones, interconnected systems, and multiple cultural identities. Two factors, presence of and access to resources, largely determine type, scope, and direction of human activities. Indigenous theories are characterized by the use of conceptions and methodologies associated exclusively with the cultural group under investigation. Indigenous psychology is the scientific study of human behavior or the mind and is designed for a people and native, not transported from other regions. Multiculturalism is a view that encourages recognition of equality for all cultural and national groups and promotes the idea that various cultural groups have the right to follow their own unique paths of development and have their own unique activities, values, and norms. Key Terms Access to Resources the indicator of availability of material resources to a population.

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Examines how the perception of Indochina has been constructed tetracycline antibiotics for acne reviews buy floxin once a day, particularly how the region has been gendered female in the colonial imaginary bacteria vaginalis infection buy floxin online now. Examines films to see how such women filmmakers contend with memory antibiotic treatment for gonorrhea buy floxin overnight delivery, gender bacteria brutal floxin 200 mg mastercard, and identity. Explores themes and theories related to understanding literature and literary culture in Southeast Asia, insisting that the space of literature reaches beyond the text to include all disciplines. Focuses on historical and ethnographic literature of Southeast Asia and its diasporas. Discusses scholarly literature on music and expressive culture generally, including dance, theater, and ritual. Discusses different and dynamic aspects of religion in various Southeast Asian countries, including Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, and the Philippines. Explores contextualized readings featuring historical, anthropological, literary, and other disciplinary perspectives on this diverse region. Covers anthropological approaches to the study of text, ritual, and performance practices; intercultural dynamics; the impact of colonialism and nationalism on traditional cultures; and globalization. Explores the contemporary works by Southeast Asian immigrants within the United States and France. Emphasizes the concept that the dynamic production of culture is a negotiation of power and an expression of resistance. Provides an interdisciplinary framework by utilizing historical as well as theoretical works to contextualize the cultural productions. Considers the role of ancient stories, religious systems, technologies, and art forms in forming traditional Southeast Asian identities, as well as the influences on these identities from outside the region. Devoted to research, criticism, and written work at the graduate level related to the 100-series course. Dean, College of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences, ex officio Supporting Faculty Derek Burrill (Media and Cultural Studies) Robb Hernandez (English) John Jennings (Media and Cultural Studies) Gloria Kim (Media and Cultural Studies) Stuart Krieger (Theatre, Film and Digital Production) Tim Labor (Media and Cultural Studies) Juliette Levy (History) Juliet McMullin (Anthropology) Yolanda Moses (Anthropology) Lisa Raphals, (Comparative Literature) Judith Rodenbeck (Media and Cultural Studies) Richard Rodriguez (Media and Cultural Studies) Robin Russin (Theatre, Film and Digital Production) Steven Sohn (English) Chikako Takeshita (Gender and Sexuality Studies) James Tobias (English) Susan Zieger (English) Milagros Peсa, Ph. We study the pervasive role of speculative discourses in public culture, investigating the complex and reciprocal exchanges among futuristic discourses, research agendas, public policy decisions, media texts, and daily life in technologically saturated societies. Speculative thinking and speculative fictions are central to many of the most compelling contemporary research concerns, such as the Anthropocene, climate change, genetic engineering, and discourses of the posthuman. We examine the histories and cultures of science, technology, and medicine to understand the role culture plays in the production of science and the reciprocal way changes in science and technology shape culture. Our program uniquely emphasizes the role of popular culture and the genres of speculative fiction, in particular, for serving as an imaginative testing ground for technological innovation, articulating hopes and anxieties regarding technological change, and mediating public understandings of science and its applications. See Minors under the College of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences in the Colleges and Programs section of this catalog for information on minors. Prerequisite(s): none Investigates the relationship between science, technology, and medicine and the genre of science fiction. Develops skills in the formulation and investigation of research questions in science fiction and technoculture studies. Students must select courses from at least two different departments or programs, one of which may be their home department. Undergraduate courses taken to fulfill these requirements must be accompanied by a 292 course with extra work mutually agreed upon by professor and student. All requirements for the Designated Emphasis must be satisfied before a student advances to candidacy in their Ph. The applications of the theory delineated in the courses may be made in any field of experience. The objective of these courses is to acquaint the student with the elements of statistics with only the necessary amount of mathematical training. Transfer Students Students transferring to the Statistics major must complete courses comparable to the following one-year sequence before they transfer: 1. Computing Laboratories the department has two large undergraduate Windows-based teaching laboratories.

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