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In my view those earlier experiments created the foundations for a political or socially engaged practice in digital art zantac arrhythmia nifedipine 20mg. The definition of digital art here is not based on an ontology and phenomenology of the digital-whatever that might be high blood pressure medication and xanax discount 30mg nifedipine fast delivery, a new binaryism between 0 and 1 Those social forms and modalities of working-such as different types of collaboration-are more important and longer lasting than specific pieces of hard and software blood pressure over 180 proven 30mg nifedipine. During the same time frame another transformation occurred heart attack pathophysiology discount nifedipine 20mg with mastercard, the one from socalled Keynesian Fordism (Aglietta 1979) to the neoliberal information economy (Harvey 2005). Supported by Canadians Dallas Smythe, Dan Schiller, and Vincent Mosco, and American Herbert Schiller, the foundations of a political economy of communications were created (Mosco 2008, 46). Mosco defines political economy as "the study of social relations, particularly the power relations that mutually constitute the production, distribution, and consumption of resources" (Mosco 2009, 2). It explains why, despite an absence of overt censorship, Western media often appear to speak with one voice and why many people, regions, and worldviews are not adequately represented in supposedly free liberal media. The postwar structure of industrial mass production was dependent on creating an adequate media system. However, as French philosopher Jean Baudrillard6 argues, the media are not just a superstructural entity, but essentially also forces of production. Both authors also used the Marxist terminology of exchange value and use value to make their arguments. As Marx explains, following Adam Smith, the commodity form is characterized by its miraculous double identity as exchange value and use value. By making the sign the subject of a political economy, he circumvented the dichotomy between base and superstructure. Media were not just shaping the consciousness of citizens/consumers, they also were the place inhabited by a generalized system of signs. It takes on an independent "sign value" which functions as the dominant side of the equation, just as the exchange value trumps use value in capitalistic societies. This system of signs formulated by Baudrillard becomes completely unassailable by critique-this is where McLuhan and Baudrillard converge in dodging further analysis-because any speech act cannot touch the fundamental structural form on which the system is built. As Baudrillard had shown in his earlier book, the System of Objects (Baudrillard 1996), any generalized system of exchange becomes selfsufficient. Both systems are ruled by the "code" that reproduces their foundational separations: that between signifier and signified, and between exchange value and use value. That enables Baudrillard to formulate a critique of the sign regarding its relation with social order, as a "theory of a social logic. Any usage of the media that reproduces the old model of communication would recreate a heteronomic system of significations, even if the media were to be seized by the left. Baudrillard personally participated in the uprising of May 1968 and seems to have taken away from it a positive view of micromedia, of the spontaneous overflow of a critical intellect in posters and graffiti. Enzensberger, on the other hand, vehemently criticized the student protesters for seizing not the radio station but the Odeon, seat of traditional high culture (Enzensberger 1970, 67). The revolt of 1968 instigated the production of a new social imaginary that saw political power growing from below rather than through topdown strategies (Katsiaficas 1987). Part of this imaginary was the switch to emancipatory and participatory media practices. Enzensberger, however, in accord with Henri Lefebvre, saw the spectacle as a utopian promise of consumption as transgression (Enzensberger 1970, 73). He demanded that emancipatory practice should be a collective process, not an effort of individualized people. While, in principle, everybody could become a media producer, the history of using amateur media such as Super 8 film, cassette recorders, and photography showed that people, left to their own devices, would only reproduce stereotypes (Enzensberger 1970, 71). After 1968 a number of converging factors, such as political support by social democratic governments and the availability of ever better and cheaper communication technologies, set in place a dialectics that led to the rise of the emancipatory and participatory media paradigm. During the era of Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher the economy was reorganized according to neoliberal criteria, and under conditions of an accelerating digital and media revolution.

An individual faces criminal sanctions for aiding or assisting an alien who has suffered a conviction for an aggravated felony to enter the United States blood pressure 120 0 30mg nifedipine with amex. The government need not prove that the accused know that the alien has a conviction for an aggravated felony pulmonary hypertension 50 mmhg generic nifedipine 20 mg with visa. In order to be convicted for bringing an alien to the United States blood pressure medication nifedipine order 30mg nifedipine free shipping, the accused need not have direct control over a vehicle arrhythmia vs fibrillation purchase nifedipine in india, nor have personally operated it. One who uses a public conveyance to bring an alien into the United States may be convicted. The government must also prove that the individual being brought into the United States has "entered. In Moreno, the accused, a foreman on a ranch, was arrested for transporting undocumented aliens as part of the "ordinary and required course of his employment as a foreman. Whether the accused actually took part in the illegal entry is irrelevant under this section. The offense is committed when the encouragement or inducement to enter is given, even if no entry is ultimately made. Thus, the elements of illegal entry are not contained within the elements transporting aliens. Counsel may distinguish Pruitt when the lesser offense argued for is aiding and abetting the alien to elude examination and inspection, as opposed to one of the other illegal entry offenses. Although the district court retains broad discretion in granting such a motion, it must consider each case on an individual basis and grant the motion where exceptional circumstances show that it is in the interest of justice to preserve the testimony of material witnesses for possible use at trial. Counsel must remind the district court that "it is unjust to deprive a defendant of what may be crucial exculpatory evidence. The party moving for the deposition must show that exceptional circumstances exist, that the deponent will come to the deposition, and that the deponent will testify at it. A party may use videotaped depositions of deported or unavailable material witnesses as substantive evidence during trial if the witness was available for cross examination and the deposition complies with the Federal Rules of Evidence. The proponent of the deposition testimony must show that the witness is unavailable to testify at trial. Admission of the videotaped deposition does not violate the Confrontation Clause where the opposing party attended the deposition, the opposing party cross-examined the declarant, and the proponent of the deposition demonstrates the unavailability of the declarant. Defense counsel should depose favorable witnesses on videotape even in the face of an unjust denial of a motion to depose them. So long as counsel complies with Rule 15 and the Federal Rules of Evidence, the defense may admit the deposition testimony under the "catch-all" exception to the hearsay rule. In cases in which there are several illegal aliens involved, however, the government will often detain only one or two of the witnesses and deport the others. Whenever alien witnesses are deported, the defense attorney should bring a motion to dismiss the indictment on the grounds that the deportation of the alien witnesses violated the Compulsory Process Clause of the Sixth Amendment and the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment. The Court held that sanctions may be imposed on the government for deporting witnesses if the accused "makes a plausible showing that the testimony of the deported witnesses would have been material and favorable to his defense, in ways not merely cumulative to the testimony of available witnesses. The defense attorney should argue that the holding in Valenzuela-Bernal sets forth a two-step analysis: the government must establish that a good faith determination was made that the alien witnesses who were deported possessed no evidence material or favorable to the defense; it is only after such a good faith determination has been made that the burden shifts to the defense to show that the lost evidence is material and favorable to the defense. If there is no 12-562 Common Federal Offenses and Issues indication in government discovery reports that a member of the Executive Branch made a determination as to whether deported alien witnesses possessed evidence material and favorable to the defense, the defense attorney should argue that the government cannot satisfy the first prong of the Valenzuela-Bernal test, and thus the indictment should be dismissed without the defense being required to make a showing that the lost evidence would be material or favorable to the defense. Even if the facts indicate that the government has made a good faith determination that the deported witnesses possess no evidence material or favorable to the defense, sanctions may be imposed on the government if the defendant makes a "plausible showing" that the testimony of the deported witnesses would have been material and favorable to the defense in ways not merely cumulative to the testimony of available witnesses. This waiver essentially states that the accused waives her or his right to compel the material witnesses to testify at trial and does not object to their return to Mexico.

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However arrhythmia svt purchase nifedipine once a day, there are some measures by which an alien who is otherwise removable or inadmissible may be able to stay in the United States pulse pressure and exercise buy nifedipine toronto. Only one statutory remedy serves as an outright and absolute protection - an executive pardon arrhythmia management plano purchase nifedipine 20 mg line. Cancellation of removal is a discretionary waiver which may be granted to allow an otherwise removable alien to remain in the United States heart attack high bride in a brothel cheap nifedipine express. This form of relief will allow an alien to evade removal under either the admissibility provisions of 8 U. The Act "reflects a legislative perception that accused juvenile offenders generally belong in the hands of state authorities. Although the Act is written to encourage state, rather than federal, prosecution of juveniles, interest in the federal prosecution of juveniles has exploded. State court juvenile justice systems typically have prosecutors, appointed counsel, judges, and probation officers who are all specialists in the particular needs of juvenile offenders. The federal justice system has no specialized juvenile court, no judges who routinely hear and are aware of the special problems of juvenile offenders, nor any probation officers who are likewise trained. What has evolved is a federal system where juvenile offenders are being more frequently prosecuted by a huge bureaucracy that neither knows of, nor is designed to deal with, the unique problems presenting young people who have committed an offense that would be criminal if they were older than 18. The purpose of the juvenile justice system is to determine "the needs of the child in society rather than adjudicating criminal conduct. Guidance and rehabilitation, not responsibility, guilt, or punishment, are the objectives of the juvenile process. To further those goals, Congress established the Office of Juvenile Justice Delinquency Prevention within the Department of Justice, under the general authority of the Attorney General. The Office was established as part of a comprehensive statutory scheme that noted: "[s]tates and local communities which experience directly the devastating failures of the juvenile justice system do not presently have sufficient technical expertise or adequate resources to deal 18-872 Juvenile Cases in Federal Court comprehensively with the problems of juvenile delinquency. Congress also noted that: "existing federal programs have not provided the direction, coordination, resources, and leadership required to meet the crisis of delinquency. The Congressional Declaration of Purpose and Policy, enacted as part of Chapter 72 to Title 42, is entitled "Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention," and its expressed purpose is to help state and local governments improve their administration of the juvenile justice system. Chapter 72 establishes a comprehensive system of assisting state authorities in the rehabilitation and prevention of delinquency. As recently as 1992, Congress reaffirmed its goal of supplementing and enhancing state programs aimed at rehabilitation and prevention of delinquency. The current federal criminal justice system for adults encourages cooperation by offenders against others (see. Often, a juvenile being prosecuted by the federal government will be encouraged to act as an "informant" in exchange for an agreement that the government will not move to transfer the juvenile to "adult" jurisdiction. The probability of actually being transferred out of the rehabilitative world of juvenile court is high. Indeed, despite the obvious intent of Congress to fund and encourage state rehabilitative prosecution of juveniles (see 42 U. Providing information to the government in exchange for a lenient sentence produces many adult perjurers. Urging a child to become a government witness can only further entrench a child into the criminal justice system, make the child a target for possible retribution, There are no real federal "juvenile practitioners. A young person who violates the law is thus thrust into a power struggle between a state system that is encouraged to rehabilitate and a federal system that is increasingly eager to punish children in adult court and which has no facilities for the treatment of juveniles. Peopling that system are participants who are usually uneducated, inexperienced, and untrained in the needs of juveniles and the procedures used in federal juvenile cases.

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Only recently have su ch collections arrhythmia reentry buy generic nifedipine 30mg on-line, originally limited to folk a rt of the original th irtee n A m erican colonies hypertension during pregnancy generic 20mg nifedipine amex, included w ork by later im m ig ra n ts to the U nited States blood pressure 9060 order 30mg nifedipine with mastercard. This p r o b ably reflects an ideological shift fro m a celebration of the essentially British past of the United S tates to a d e m o c ra tic inclusion of the a rt of g ro u p s w hose cu ltu re h ad form erly been th o u g h t primitive heart attack the alias radio remix demi lovato heart attack remixes 20 discount nifedipine 30mg free shipping, lacking in artistic m erit, a n d unA m erican, su ch as A m erican blacks a n d H ispanics. Similarly,9 the w ork of naive artists-w ho w ork in no esta b lish ed m e d iu m a n d belong to no o rg anized art w o rld -o f ten fails to survive, as we will see w h en we c o n sid e r them in the n ext ch ap the r. Not being in the g rated into a n y co n v entional system of creating a n d d istrib u tin g art, the w o rk s suffer from n a tu ra l decay, the offended sensibilities of neighbors, the resulting actions of m u n ic ip al a n d c o u n ty building d e p a r t m e n ts a n d zoning com m issions, a n d the vandalism of n e ig h b o rh o o d children. Few w o rk s can with s ta n d such a c o m b in a tio n of assaults, unless (as so m e tim es h a p p e n s) a r t ists, dealers, a n d collectors b e c o m e interested, finding in the w o rk h ith e rto u n n o tic e d virtues. Self-conscious art worlds, then, organize to preserv e som e of the w o rk d o n e in them. W orks in a m e d iu m o r style defined as n o t a rt have a m u c h s h o rte r life e x p e c ta n c y th a n those defined as art. No one k now s w h a t p ro p o rtio n of the a rt w orks c re a the d at a n y p a rtic u la r tim e survive m o re th a n a very sh o rt time, in any of the senses of survival we have sp o k en of, let alone w h a t kinds of w ork survive th ro u g h the o p e ra tio n of avail able collection-storage system s. Family collections of p h o to g ra p h s are a n obvious e x am p le (although the grow th of a professionalized interest in ju s t such collections for schol arly a n d aesth etic p u rp o s e s has m a d e th e m m o re collectable a n d th u s p re se rv e d w o rk w hich w ould o th erw ise have d is a p p e a re d [see, for instance, Talbot, 1976, a n d Seiberling, n. W h a t kinds of professional w ork survive is a m o re resea rc h a b le question. One could in principle m o n ito r all the p ro fessio n al w o rk being d o n e in a given m e d iu m at so m e p a rtic u la r tim e (as W hite a n d W hite [1965] a tte m p the d for n in e the e n th -c e n tu ry F re n c h painting). The p ro cess is especially visible in fields new ly discovered to have artistic value. Thus, p h o to g ra p h ic h isto ria n s have been re c o n stitu tin g the history of the m e d iu m by discovering bodies of w ork, describing them, publishing th e ir findings (in the n e w Journal o f the H istory o f Photography), a n d th u s m oving u n k n o w n survivors to the "k n o w n a n d c a ta lo g u e d " cate g o ry of the p h o to g ra p h ic w orld. B ecause a rt w orks can die, so m e artists do w h a t they can to preserv e their w ork; so m e tim es su b sta n tia l portions of art w o rld s join in the effort. W orks o f visual art, by virtue of the n a tu re of th e ir m a the ria ls a n d the effects of w ea th e r, the m p e ra tu re, a n d chem ical pollution, can d e terio rate badly. P h o to g ra p h e rs a n d m u s e u m s w hich collect p h o to g ra p h s have jointly developed a s ta n d a rd of archival processing, designed to g u a rd against this h a z a rd by prescribing p ro c e d u re s for rem o v in g the m o st d a n g e ro u s c h em ic als from the print. Similarly, m a n y p h o to g ra p h e rs arc re lu ctan t to m ake, a n d m u s e u m s are re lu c ta n t to collect, color p h o to g ra p h s, w hich are chem ically less stable a n d are shorter-lived th a n black-and-w hite. Individual p a in the rs and, m o re im p o rtan tly, m u s e u m s a n d even su ch cities as Venice a n d Florence, a tte m p t to do s o m e th in g a b o u t the increasing d a n g e r to visual a rt w o rk s from industrial a n d a u to m o b ile pollution, w hich have severely d a m a g e d in a relatively few years w o rk s th a t h a d lasted for centuries with o u t visible h a rm. Artists can also take p re c a u tio n s to save their w o rk from social a n d political execution, hiding d a n g e ro u s m eanings, avoiding d a n g e ro u s topics. Phillips describes how the m a k ers o f English to m b s c u lp tu re avoided the d e stru c tio n of im ages th a t followed the b re ak with the R o m a n C hurch: Religious feelings of the wealthy could no longer be expressed in the adorning and erecting of churches, nor could even their 224 E D I T I N G tombs reflect their devotion through images of the Blessed Virgin or of the saints. The new tombs erected during the late sixteenth century were magnificent and sumptuous revela tions of the deceased s rank and station and were adorned with the personified, abstract virtues of the departed: faith, wisdom, charity, hope. All sorts of symbolic ornaments came to be carved on tombs: Indians, skulls and crossbones, scythes, urns, weeping cherubs holding doused torches were substituted in place of the traditional Christian symbols that were every day being destroyed. These changes of a concep tual nature suggest not a progress from religious to secular representation: rather, the character of the traditional Catho lic imagery gave way to a new religious imagery devoid of traditional identifications and hence safe. The people w h o m ak e those choices range from lib rarians a n d m u s e u m c u ra to rs to n e ig h b o rh o o d van d als a n d political censors. W h at survives th o se choices co n stitu tes the c o rp u s of w ork by which an artist, o r a genre o r m e d iu m, is know n. T h o u g h I have c o n c e n tra the d on the visual arts, b e ca u se w o rk s in th e m usually exist as u n iq u e physical objects, the analysis could easily be e x ten d e d to a rts w hich take the form o f m ultiple o bjects. Artists, as I h a v e said, m a k e m a n y of the im p o rta n t decisions, b u t not all of them. W h en we speak o f the w ork of Titian o r M ozart or Rabelais, w e conventionally take the w o rk s a ttrib uted to th e m to co n stitu the all the w o rk those artists did and a s s u m e they did it all them selves. F or th a t reason, the assigning a n d e v a lu a t ing of artistic re p u ta tio n s h a s a n ironic c h a ra c the r. We praise a n d b lam e people for w h a t they did not com pletely do, leav 2 2 5 E I) I T I N G ing o u t of a c c o u n t m u c h th a t they did do. Likewise, we assess the re p u ta tio n s of w hole genres, styles, periods, a n d c o u n tries on the basis of choices m a d e by all sorts of people about w h o m w e k n o w little o r nothing, leaving out of a c c o u n t all the w ork a b o u t which we kn o w no th in g becau se it has been p u rp o sely d e stro y e d o r b e c a u se it w as not saved, as m o st w o rk s arc not.

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