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Created by the state government and jointly controlled by the government medications elderly should not take keppra 250mg on line, representatives of poor communities medicine mountain scout ranch buy keppra online now, and private investors medicine norco cheap keppra online mastercard, it provides funding and technical assistance for private treatment yeast infection women 250 mg keppra with mastercard, public, and cooperative enterprises in poor communities. Its goals include creation of jobs and development of skills, particularly for people who are unemployed, underemployed, or receiving public assistance; community participation in decision-making; establishment of self-sustaining enterprises; improving the environment; promoting affirmative action, equal employment opportunities and minority-owned businesses; and coordination with environmental and economic planning. Development banks and credit unions Various forms of community-based and cooperative banking have developed in the Third World and in poor communities in the United States. Sweat equity and labor exchange Sweat equity converts labor into a right to a share in the product. It lets people build houses and thereby acquire a share of their ownership or work in enterprises and thereby acquire a proportion of their stock. Labor exchange allows people with different needs and abilities to help each other. Such programs allow people to make use of resources which the mainstream economy leaves to languish. Community-based development organizations Solving economic problems requires mobilization of diverse segments of the community. In many parts of the world, citizen-based organizations and coalitions are playing a crucial role in representing the needs and mobilizing the capabilities of grassroots people and organizations. Perhaps the most famous is the Mondragon network of banks, social service organizations, technical education institutions, and producer cooperatives in the Basque region of Spain. Rebuild the public sector Structural adjustment programs and the desire to reduce business taxes have led to sharp cutbacks in public sector activities all over the world. The constant attack on government and the privatization of formerly public functions have led to worldwide decay of education, healthcare, infrastructures, environmental protection and enhancement, and services for the young, the old, and the disabled. An expansion of education, health, infrastructure, environmental, and similar public sector activities is an essential element of economic reconstruction. Global warming, desertification, pollution, and resource exhaustion will make the earth uninhabitable long before every Chinese has a private car and every American a private boat or plane. The solution to this dilemma lies in converting the system of production and consumption to an ecologically sound basis. The technology to do this exists or can be developed, from solar energy to public transportation and from reusable products to resource-minimizing production processes. However, a system in which the search for ever-expanding profits has no regulation or limits will continue to use environmentally destructive processes to produce luxuries, pollutants, and waste. This malappropriation of resources is exacerbated by the huge share of human wealth squandered on the military. Despite the end of the Cold War, global military spending is more than $1,000 trillion per year-nearly half of it by the United States. This is justified in large part by the need to control economic rivals and the revolts of poor and desperate peoples. The energies now directed to the race to the bottom need to be redirected to rebuilding the global economy on a humanely and environmentally sound basis. Such an approach requires limits to growth-in some spheres, sharp reductions-in the material demands that human society places on the environment. It requires reduced energy and resource use; less toxic production and products; shorter individual worktime; and less production for war. But it requires vast growth in education, health care, human caring, recycling, rebuilding an ecologically sound production and consumption system, and time available for self-development, community life, and democratic participation. Those who seek to realize their own interests by working with others to advance the common human interest are part of it. As the introductory sections in this book have noted, some have also had their lives dramatically altered by the processes of which they were a part. Martin Luther King was assassinated, possibly because of the stand he took against the Vietnam War. Many members of the Committee on the Present Danger were influential in the Reagan administration. Vбclav Havel went from being a playwright, political prisoner and dissident intellectual to being president of a state that, in an extraordinary geopolitical event, subsequently quite peacefully separated into two.

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Finally medications covered by blue cross blue shield purchase 250 mg keppra overnight delivery, the pre-degradation natural state baseline should not be confused with the goal or target of restoration or rehabilitation symptoms gonorrhea buy cheap keppra 500 mg on-line. A pre-degradation state baseline is necessary for assessing the magnitude of damage symptoms 3 weeks into pregnancy purchase keppra 250 mg without a prescription, and while the target should be directed towards the pre-degradation state baseline medicine lake mn cheap keppra online mastercard, the pre-degradation state itself need not be the target. In practice, the target will often be only partial rehabilitation towards the pre-degradation state (see also Kotiaho et al. It is worth noting however, that arguments have been put forward that interventions may aim at replacement of the natural state ecosystem with a different system (Bradshaw, 1984). Thinking about alternatives to our own pasts is central to human thinking and emotion (Epstude & Roese, 2008; Sanna et al. Therefore, it may be a globally functional and understandable approach for establishing the natural state baseline for an assessment of the magnitude of degradation in a given ecosystem. By asking what the environment would have looked like in the absence of the intervention or development, counterfactual thinking can be used and has been used in environmental impact scenario-modelling and in environmental impact evaluations for establishing references for the current state (Caplow et al. Although the approach has been rare in the environmental literature (Ferraro, 2009), the number of cases where it has been successfully applied to questions relevant to land degradation and restoration is increasing. In the latter case, the counterfactual state is the natural state and functioned as the natural state baseline for measuring anthropogenic ecosystem degradation. The counterfactual natural state baseline does not suffer from the natural change challenge, but the availability of data or expertise can still be an issue. In addition, a method known as space-fortime substitution (Johnson & Miyanishi, 2008; Pickett et al. Thus, an unambiguous implementation of the concepts of land degradation and restoration requires asking "degraded relative to what? There is no perfect reference state or baseline for all purposes, but allowing free selection of a reference state increases the possibility of deliberate bias and arguments. Nevertheless, for the purpose of assessing anthropogenic ecosystem degradation, an obvious reference is the natural state without any human modification. Establishing natural state for an ecosystem is challenging but there are at least two approaches that can be used, time bound and counterfactual natural state. Other reference states that have been used include various time bound historical baselines. Finally, while a reference is necessary for assessing the magnitude of degradation, it should not be confused with a target. Targets are always a matter of political choice ­ weighing societal, economic and ecological interests ­ and will vary case by case (Kotiaho et al. This seems to be an obvious baseline from which to assess degradation and recovery, since it is before any human modification, but it is riddled with practical and theoretical issues. Practically, it is rare to find data from such distant past that includes all the variables needed to draw a comparison with current ecosystem conditions (Broothaerts et al. There are also at least two conceptual challenges with the time bound natural state baseline. First, the climate and other biophysical environmental conditions have changed in the intervening time (from the baseline to present day) and it is difficult to disentangle the effect of anthropogenic degradation from natural environmental change (Bennion et al. The second challenge arises from the fact that some degree of disturbance by humans is part of the evolutionary history of many current organisms, and such potentially cascading ecological changes are challenging to identify or take into account (Jackson & Hobbs, 2009). Time bound historical baselines Unlike a natural state baseline, time bound historical baselines may have suffered some degradation and thus provide underestimates of actual degradation. On the other hand, when the more recent past is chosen as the historical baseline, more data is available. Counterfactual natural state baseline Another perhaps more operational approach for establishing the natural state baseline is the use of counterfactual thinking. Assessing deviations from the natural state would function equally well for this purpose, but as stated above, an estimated "natural state" can be more laborious to establish. A distinct discontinuity exists in the degree and type of disturbance around the onset of the modern era, about twothree centuries ago around 1750-1850. This "pre-modern Holocene", before the "great acceleration" reference state, is not easily manipulated and many examples show it to be implementable, though not without its challenges. The same challenges as with the time bound natural state exist, but are generally not as problematic. It is perhaps the most important of the states for policy purposes, since it represents the future and thus a state whose achievement can be influenced by policy. Target A target is the desired state ­ in this case, for the purposes of restoration.

In the Balkans this line 9 medications that can cause heartburn order keppra with a visa, of course medicine 031 500mg keppra with visa, coincides with the historic boundary between the Hapsburg and Ottoman empires medications xanax cheap 500mg keppra overnight delivery. The peoples to the north and west of this line are Protestant or Catholic; they shared the common experiences of European history- feudalism symptoms xanax withdrawal generic 500mg keppra, the Renaissance, the Reformation, the Enlightenment, the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution; they are generally economically better off than the peoples to the east; and they may now look forward to increasing involvement in a common European economy and to the consolidation of democratic political systems. The peoples to the east and south of this line are Orthodox or Muslim; they historically belonged to the Ottoman or Tsarist empires and were only lightly touched by the shaping events in the rest of Europe; they are generally less advanced economically; they seem much less likely to develop stable democratic political systems. The Velvet Curtain of culture has replaced the Iron Curtain of ideology as the most significant dividing line in Europe. As the events in Yugoslavia show, it is not only a line of difference; it is also at times a line of bloody conflict. Conflict along the fault line between Western and Islamic civilizations has been going on for 1300 years. After the founding of Islam, the Arab and Moorish surge west and north only ended at Tours in 732. From the eleventh to the thirteenth century the Crusaders attempted with temporary success to bring Christianity and Christian rule to the Holy Land. From the fourteenth to the seventeenth century, the Ottoman Turks reversed the balance, extended their sway over the Middle East and the Balkans, captured Constantinople, and twice laid siege to Vienna. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as Ottoman power declined, Britain, France and Italy established Western control over most of North Africa and the Middle East. France fought a bloody and ruthless war in Algeria for most of the 1950s; British and French forces invaded Egypt in 1956; American forces went into Lebanon in 1958; subsequently American forces returned to Lebanon, attacked Libya, and engaged in various military encounters with Iran; Arab and Islamic terrorists, supported by at least three Middle Eastern governments, employed the weapon of the weak and bombed Western planes and installations and seized Western hostages. This warfare between Arabs and the West culminated in 1990, when the United States sent a massive army to the Persian Gulf to defend some Arab countries against aggression by another. The Gulf War left some Arabs feeling proud that Saddam Hussein had attacked Israel and stood up to the West. Greenway has termed the "kin-country" syndrome, is replacing political ideology and traditional balance of power considerations as the principal basis for cooperation and coalitions. It can be seen gradually emerging in the post-Cold War conflicts in the Persian Gulf, the Caucasus and Bosnia. None of these was a full-scale war between civilizations, but each involved some elements of civilizational rallying, which seemed to become more important as the conflict continued and which may provide a foretaste of the future. Civilization rallying to date has been limited, but it has been growing, and it clearly has the potential to spread much further. As the conflicts in the Persian Gulf, the Caucasus and Bosnia continued, the positions of nations and the cleavages between them increasingly were along civilizational lines. Populist politicians, religious leaders and the media have found it a potent means of arousing mass support and of pressuring hesitant governments. In the coming years, the local conflicts most likely to escalate into major wars will be those, as in Bosnia and the Caucasus, along the fault lines between civilizations. Military conflict among Western states is unthinkable, and Western military power is unrivaled. It dominates international political and security institutions and with Japan international economic institutions. Global political and security issues are effectively settled by a directorate of the United States, Britain and France, world economic issues by a directorate of the United States, Germany and Japan, all of which maintain extraordinarily close relations with each other to the exclusion of lesser and largely non-Western countries. The very phrase "the world community" has become the euphemistic collective noun (replacing "the Free World") to give global legitimacy to actions reflecting the interests of the United States and other Western powers. It also produced the quite unprecedented action by the United States, Britain and France in getting the Security Council to demand that Libya hand over the Pan Am 103 bombing suspects and then to impose sanctions when Libya refused. After defeating the largest Arab army, the West did not hesitate to throw its weight around in the Arab world. The West in effect is using international institutions, military power and economic resources to run the world in ways that will maintain Western predominance, protect Western interests and promote Western political and economic values. Differences in power and struggles for military, economic and institutional power are thus one source of conflict between the West and other civilizations. Differences in culture, that is basic values and beliefs, are a second source of conflict. Naipaul has argued that Western civilization is the "universal civilization" that "fits all men. At a more basic level, however, Western concepts differ fundamentally from those prevalent in other civilizations.

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If the fresh-cut industry is going to continue to grow symptoms of strep throat purchase 500mg keppra amex, then supply chain management practices should benefit all participants in the chain symptoms syphilis order 250 mg keppra mastercard. However keratin intensive treatment purchase keppra with amex, the extent to which benefits are distributed is a function of the extent to which information and risks are shared across the chain medicine nobel prize 2016 discount 250mg keppra with visa. If information and risks are not shared, then processors will gain greater market power, and growers will face fewer marketing opportunities, narrower profit margins, and less control over their production practices. Some argue that these practices make firms and marketing channel participants more efficient without regard to size. They note that the performance gap between top firms and the food industry average is narrowing. Nonetheless, accurate information exchanges and rapid responses to market changes are valuable capacities in consumer-oriented markets. Given the natural production lags associated with fruit and vegetable production, the successful application of supply chain management practices places a greater reliance on demand forecasts, communication, and expectations about changes in consumer preferences. These forecasts need to be shared by input suppliers and producers, if the ability to respond quickly is truly important. However, the application of these practices may not follow the simpler lock-step approaches seen in manufacturing industries. The cost of increasing produce quality can be high and is typically unpredictable. The investment required to maintain or increase production flexibility may be equally prohibitive. If increased quality and flexibility are important, then growers need to rewarded. Unfortunately, the primary reward for quality- and flexibility-oriented investments is often only market access. This may be especially important as domestic fruit and vegetable prices are increasingly influenced by international market developments. As the fresh-cut industry moves forward, it should consider ways that it can enhance information exchanges among growers and other suppliers, and when appropriate, share technology and agricultural risks. The focus on technology transfers and fresh-cut specific research and development efforts has yielded new products, new brands, improved packaging, and extended shelf life in the store and at home. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data the Geopolitics Reader/[edited by] Gearуid У Tuathail, Simon Dalby, and Paul Routledge. As we started to gather the readings, we quickly became dependent on a number of hard-working graduate students, administrative assistants and others. Gearуid У Tuathail wishes to thank Derek McCormack for his diligent work in scanning in the readings that make up the first three sections (and a few others as well). The Department of Geography at Virginia Tech provided the important computer facilities and support that made this project possible. Timothy Luke and Douglas Borer in the Department of Political Science at Virginia Tech helped out along the way with comments, reactions and references. Finally, Michela Verardo tolerated the wired moments this project generated and made mutual laughter a production value. Paul Routledge thanks Teresa Flavin for reality control; Mike Shand of the Department of Geography, University of Glasgow for the scanning of documents at short notice; Helen Boyd, Eilidh Douglas and Sheena Glassford of the Department of Geography, University of Glasgow for secretarial support. Simon Dalby thanks Steve Gwynne-Vaughan for help with the scanner and some comments on the introduction to Part 4; Laurie-Ann Hossein for a useful review of Part 4; Susan Tudin for background research, and Cara Stewart who once again lived through the domestic disruptions of academic writing. All three of us would like to thank the institutions, publishing houses, agents and authors who kindly provided us with the copyright permissions needed to compose this Reader. Thanks also to Sarah Lloyd at Routledge who supported the project once Tristan moved on. Since geopolitics is not a science but a field of political contestation, we have decided to dedicate this book to three inspiring geopolitical activists who struggled throughout their lives to resist the dictatorship of a geopolitics wielded by the powerful over the weak. Coming up with a specific definition of geopolitics is notoriously difficult, for the meaning of concepts like geopolitics tends to change as historical periods and structures of world order change. Back in the early years of the twentieth century, Kjellen and other imperialist thinkers understood geopolitics as that part of Western imperial knowledge that dealt with the relationship between the physical earth and politics. During the later years of the Cold War, geopolitics was used to describe the global contest between the Soviet Union and the United States for influence and control over the states and strategic resources of the world. Since then geopolitics has enjoyed a revival of interest across the world as foreign policy makers, strategic analysts, transnational managers and academics have struggled to make sense of the dynamics of the world political map.

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