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Pathology the chronic cerebral symptoms medicine 75 yellow femilon 0.15mg/0.02mg with amex, like the transient ones medicine x ed purchase femilon 0.15mg/0.02mg amex, may occur with all varieties of chronic liver disease treatment xdr tb buy femilon 0.15mg/0.02mg cheap. The cerebral lesion is localized more regularly in the cortex than is the case in Wilson disease medicine garden order femilon 0.15mg/0.02mg otc. In some specimens an irregular gray line of necrosis or gliosis can be observed throughout both hemispheres, and the lenticular nuclei may appear shrunken and discolored. These lesions resemble hypoxic ones and may be concentrated in the vascular border zones, but they tend to spare the hippocampus, globus pallidus, and deep folia of the cerebellar cortex- the sites of predilection in anoxic encephalopathy. Microscopically, a widespread hyperplasia of protoplasmic astrocytes is visible in the deep layers of the cerebral cortex and in the cerebellar cortex as well as in thalamic and lenticular nuclei and other nuclear structures of the brainstem. In the necrotic zones, the medullated fibers and nerve cells are destroyed, with marginal fibrous gliosis; at the corticomedullary junction, in the striatum (particularly in the superior pole of the putamen), and in the cerebellar white matter, polymicrocavitation may be prominent. Some nerve cells appear swollen and chromatolyzed, taking the form, we believe, of the so-called Opalski cells usually associated with Wilson disease. The similarity of the neuropathologic lesions in the familial and acquired forms of hepatocerebral disease is striking. Pathogenesis It is evident that a close relationship exists between the acute, transient form of hepatic encephalopathy (hepatic coma) and the chronic, largely irreversible hepatocerebral syndrome; frequently one blends imperceptibly into the other. As noted above, this relationship is reflected in the pathologic findings as well. Reducing the serum ammonia by the measures that are effective in Chronic Acquired (Nonwilsonian) Hepatocerebral Degeneration Patients who survive an episode or several episodes of hepatic coma are sometimes left with residual neurologic abnormalities such as tremor of the head or arms, asterixis, grimacing, choreic movements and twitching of the limbs, dysarthria, ataxia of gait, or impairment of intellectual function. In a few patients with chronic liver disease, permanent neurologic abnormalities become manifest in the absence of discrete episodes of hepatic coma. In either circumstance, these patients deteriorate neurologically over a period of months or years. Examination of their brains discloses foci of destruction of nerve cells and other parenchymal elements in addition to a widespread transformation of astrocytes- changes very much similar to those of Wilson disease. A full account of the cases reported since that time as well as of our own extensive experience with this disorder is contained in the article by Victor, Adams, and Cole, listed in the References. It appears that the parenchymal damage in the chronic disease simply represents the most severe degree of a pathologic process that in its mildest form is reflected in an astrocytic hyperplasia alone. Apparently some protein in the capillary walls has an avidity for both calcium and iron. Interest in this problem was revived in more recent years by Jellinek and Kelly, who described 6 such cases. All of them showed an ataxia of gait; in addition, some degree of ataxia of the arms and dysarthria were present in 4 instances, and nystagmus in 2. Cremer and coworkers have reported a similar clinical experience, based on a study of 24 patients with either primary or secondary hypothyroidism. There have been only a few reports of the pathologic changes, and these are far from satisfactory. The myxedematous patient described by Price and Netsky had also been a serious alcoholic, and the clinical signs (ataxia of gait and of the legs) and pathologic changes (loss of Purkinje cells and gliosis of the molecular layer, most pronounced in the vermis) could be distinguished from those due to alcoholism and malnutrition. Scattered throughout the nervous system of their case were unusual glycogen-containing bodies, similar but not identical to corpora amylaceae. These structures, designated myxedema bodies by Price and Netsky, were also observed in the cerebellar white matter of a second case of myxedema; there were no other neuropathologic changes, however, and this patient had shown no ataxia during life. It is difficult to know whether these peculiar bodies have anything to do with myxedema. We have not seen them in one carefully studied case of myxedema, nor have they been described by others. Thyroid medication corrects the defect in motor coordination, raising doubt as to whether it could be based on a visible structural lesion. The various causes of cerebellar ataxia, including the metabolic ones, are summarized in Table 5-1 (page 78). Kernicterus Kernicterus, formerly a common cause of congenital choreoathetosis, has now been virtually eliminated. Hypoparathyroidism this condition and pseudohypoparathyroidism (page 834) were mentioned in relation to the hereditary metabolic disorders. In the past, the usual cause of hypoparathyroidism was surgical removal of the parathyroid glands during subtotal thyroidectomy, although there were always idiopathic cases as well. With the more widespread use of radiation and drug therapy for thyroid disease, the number of surgically created cases has become small in proportion to nonsurgical ones.
An alternative method of ambulatory treatment of the opiate addict involves the use of narcotic antagonists symptoms 97 jeep 40 oxygen sensor failure purchase generic femilon canada, of which naloxone and naltrexone are the best known treatment hepatitis c generic 0.15mg/0.02mg femilon amex. The physical effects of abusing narcotics are thereby partially blocked medications known to cause miscarriage femilon 0.15mg/0.02mg low price, and there may be some degree of aversive conditioning if withdrawal symptoms are produced 897 treatment plant rd proven femilon 0.15mg/0.02mg. Naltrexone is favored because it has a longer effect than naloxone, is almost free of agonist effects, and can be administered orally. Similar results have also been achieved with cyclazocine in a small number of highly motivated patients; this drug is administered orally in increasing amounts until a dosage of 2 mg/70 kg body weight is attained. More recently, interest has centered on the use of buprenorphine for the treatment of heroin (and cocaine) abuse. Buprenorphine is unique in that it has both opioid agonist and antagonist properties; it therefore mutes the effect of withdrawal and serves also as an aversive agent, like naltrexone. In addition, there is evidence, based on animal experiments and experience with small numbers of addicts, that it may be useful for the treatment of dual dependence on cocaine and opiates (see Mello and Mendelson). Buprenorphine has the additional advantage of being administered as a sublingual tablet. Medical and Neurologic Complications of Opioid Use In addition to the toxic effects of the opioid itself, the addict may suffer a variety of neurologic and infectious complications resulting from the injection of contaminated adulterants (quinine, talc, lactose, powdered milk, and fruit sugars) and of various infectious agents (injections administered by unsterile methods). Particulate matter that is injected with heroin or a vasculitis that is induced by chronic heroin abuse may cause stroke by an incompletely understood occlusion of cerebral arteries, with hemiplegia or other focal cerebral signs. Amblyopia, due probably to the toxic effects of quinine in the heroin mixtures, has been reported, as well as transverse myelopathy and several types of peripheral neuropathy. The spinal cord disorder expresses itself clinically by the abrupt onset of paraplegia with a level on the trunk below which motor function and sensation are lost or impaired and by urinary retention. Pathologically, there is an acute necrotizing lesion involving both gray and white matter over a considerable vertical extent of the thoracic and occasionally the cervical cord. In some cases a myelopathy has followed the first intravenous injection of heroin after a prolonged period of abstinence. We have also seen two cases of cervical myelopathy from heroin-induced stupor and a prolonged period of immobility with the neck hyperextended over the back of a chair or sofa. In addition, we have observed several instances of a subacute progressive cerebral leukoencephalopathy after heroin use, similar to ones that occurred in Amsterdam in the 1980s, the result of inhalation of heroin pyrolysate or an adulterant (Wolters et al and Tan et al). A similar leukoencephalopathy has also been reported in cocaine users, although a hypertensive encephalopathy or an adrenergic-induced vasculopathy may have played a role in these cases. Damage to single peripheral nerves at the site of injection of heroin and from compression is a relatively common occurrence. However, bilateral compression of the sciatic nerves, the result of sitting or lying for a prolonged period in a stuporous state or in the lotus position while "stoned," has occurred in several of our patients. In sciatic compression of this type, the peroneal branch has been more affected than the tibial, causing foot drop with less weakness of plantar flexion. More difficult to understand in heroin abusers is the involvement of other individual nerves, particularly the radial nerve, and painful affection of the brachial plexus, apparently unrelated to compression and remote from the sites of injection. An acute generalized myonecrosis with myoglobinuria and renal failure has been ascribed to the intravenous injection of adulterated heroin. Brawny edema and fibrosing myopathy (Volkmann contracture) are the sequelae of venous thrombosis resulting from the administration of heroin and its adulterants by the intramuscular and subcutaneous routes. Occasionally there may be massive swelling of an extremity into which heroin had been injected subcutaneously or intramuscularly; infection and venous thrombosis appear to be involved in its causation. Tetanus, endocarditis (due mainly to Staphylococcus aureus), spinal epidural abscess, meningitis, brain abscess, and tuberculosis have occurred less frequently. Mechanism of Action All the common barbiturates are derived from barbituric acid; the differences between them depend on variations in the side chains of the parent molecule. The potency of each drug is a function of the ionization constant and lipid solubility. The lowering of plasma pH increases the rate of entry of the ionized form into the brain. The liver is the main locus of drug metabolism, and the kidney is the method of elimination of the metabolites. All the barbiturates are similar pharmacologically and differ only in the speed of onset and duration of their action. The clinical problems posed by the barbiturates are different, however, depending on whether the intoxication is acute or chronic.
Effects of Aging on Memory and Other Cognitive Functions Probably the most detailed information as to the effects of age on the nervous system comes from the measurement of cognitive functions medicine quetiapine cheap femilon 0.15/0.02 mg mastercard. In the course of standardization of the original WechslerBellevue Intelligence Scale (1955) medications 122 buy 0.15mg/0.02mg femilon mastercard, cross-sectional studies of large samples of the population indicated that there was a steady decline in cognitive function starting at 30 years of age and progressing into the senium symptoms parkinsons disease 0.15/0.02 mg femilon for sale. Apparently all forms of cognitive function partake of this decline- although in general certain elements of the verbal scale (vocabulary symptoms esophageal cancer buy generic femilon 0.15mg/0.02mg, fund of information, and comprehension) withstand the effects of aging better than those of the performance scale (block design, reversal of digits, picture arrangement, object assembly, and the digit symbol task). However, the concept of a linear regression of cognitive function with aging has had to be modified in the light of subsequent longitudinal studies. If the same individual is examined over a period of many years, there is virtually no decline in his performance as measured by tests of verbal function until 60 years of age. Also, in a series of 460 community-dwelling individuals (55 to 95 years of age) studied by Smith and coworkers at the Mayo Clinic, there was no significant decline with age in verbal memory and in registration-attention; similar results were found by Peterson and colleagues in 161 normal, community dwelling individuals 62 to 100 years of age. The most definite effects of age were in learning and memory and in problem solving- cognitive impairments probably attributable to a progressive reduction in the speed of processing information. The latter is reflected in the slowing of event-related evoked potentials and by a number of special psychologic tests (see Verhaeghen et al). As regards these cognitive functions, it hardly needs to be pointed out that the ability to memorize, acquire and retain new information, recall names, and avoid distraction once set on a course of action diminishes with advancing age, particularly in those more than 70 years old. Moreover, memory function may be disturbed in this way despite the relative intactness of other intellectual abilities. Characteristically, there is difficulty with recall of a name or the specific date of an experience ("episodic" memory) despite a preservation of memory for the experience itself or for the many features of a person whose name is momentarily elusive ("tip-of-the-tongue syndrome"). Also characteristic is an inconsistent retrieval of the lost name or information at a later date. It has been found, however, that if older persons are allowed to learn new material very well, until no errors are made, they forget this information at a rate similar to that of younger individuals (see review by Albers). Kral, who first wrote informatively on this type of memory disturbance, referred to it as benign senescent forgetfulness. In judging the degree of cognitive decline, several abbreviated tests of mental status have been developed and are of practical value (Kokmen et al; Folstein et al) in that they can be given at the bedside in 5 to 10 min. Repetition of spoken items, such as a series of digits, orientation as to place and time, capacity to learn and to retain several items, tests of arithmetic and calculation (concentration), and specific tests for memory (particularly tests of delayed recall or forgetfulness) reveal that normal aging persons invariably perform at a significantly higher level than patients with Alzheimer disease, and these tests readily discriminate between the two groups (Larrabee et al). Some 70-year-olds perform better on psychologic testing than some "normal" 20-year-olds. And a few individuals retain exceptional mental power and perform creative work until late life. Humboldt wrote the five volumes of his Kosmos between the ages of 76 and 89 years; Goethe produced the second part of Faust when he was more than 70 years old; Galileo, Laplace, and Sherrington continued to make scientific contributions in their eighth decades; and Picasso continued to paint in his nineties. It must be pointed out, however, that these accomplishments were essentially continuations of lines of endeavor that had been initiated in early adult life. High intelligence, well-organized work habits, and sound judgment compensate for many of the progressive shortcomings of old age. Personality Changes in the Aged these are less easily measured than cognitive functions, but certain trends are nevertheless observable and may seriously disturb the lives of aged persons and those around them. Many old people become more opinionated, repetitive, self-centered, and rigid and conservative in their thinking; the opposite qualities- undue pliancy, vacillation, and the uncritical acceptance of ideas- are observed in others. Often these changes can be recognized as exaggerations of lifelong personality traits. Elderly persons tend to become increasingly cautious; many of them seem to lack self-confidence and require a strong probability of success before undertaking certain tasks. One of the weaknesses of studies of the aged has been the bias in selection of patients. Many of the reported observations have been made in cohorts of individuals residing in nursing homes. Studies of functionally intact old people of comparable age and living independently, such as those of Kokmen and of Benassi and their colleagues, reveal fewer deficits, consisting mainly of forgetfulness of names, smallness of pupils, restriction of convergence and upward conjugate gaze, diminished Achilles reflexes and vibratory sense in the feet, stooped posture, and impairments of balance, agility, and gait (as mentioned earlier and below).
Distal neuropathic pain and persistent autonomic problems occur but are infrequent treatment questionnaire order femilon 0.15/0.02 mg otc. All manner of other late symptoms are attributed with little evidence to the illness and should be addressed on their own merits- fatigue and asthenia medicine quinidine buy 0.15mg/0.02mg femilon visa, muscle cramps medications and grapefruit juice order femilon 0.15mg/0.02mg line, dizziness symptoms of anxiety order femilon amex, pain, and breathlessness. Often it occurs within a few weeks or months; however, if axons have degenerated, their regeneration may require 6 to 18 months or longer. In our experience, little improvement can be expected in disabilities that have lasted 3 or more years. Some 5 to 10 percent of patients suffer one or more recurrences of the acute polyneuropathy as mentioned. An illness that in the beginning appeared to be an acute inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy may fail to stabilize and continue to progress steadily, or there may be an incomplete remission followed by a chronic, fluctuating, slowly progressive neuropathy. These chronic forms of inflammatory neuropathy are described in a later section of this chapter. This type of neuropathy causes difficulty in weaning a patient from the ventilator, even as the underlying critical illness comes under control. The neuropathic process, predominantly of motor type, varies in severity from an electrophysiologic abnormality without obvious clinical signs to a pronounced quadriparesis with respiratory failure. Usually the cranial nerves are spared and there are no overt dysautonomic manifestations. Autopsy material has usually disclosed no inflammatory changes in the peripheral nerves. The toxic effects of drugs and antibiotics and nutritional deficiency must be considered in causation, but rarely can they be established. Perhaps some of the many systemic mediators of sepsis are toxic to the peripheral nervous system; tumor necrosis factor has been proposed as one such endogeneous toxin. This form of polyneuropathy must also be distinguished from a poorly understood acute quadriplegic myopathy that sometimes complicates critical illness (page 1237). High doses of corticosteroids, particularly in combination with neuromuscular blocking agents, have been implicated. Acute Sensory Neuronopathy (Sensory Ganglionopathy) Attention was drawn to this entity by Sterman and colleagues in a report of three adult patients with rapidly evolving sensory ataxia, areflexia, numbness, and pain, beginning in the face and spreading to involve the entire body. In each instance, the symptoms began within 4 to 12 days following the institution of penicillin therapy for a febrile illness (antibiotics were subsequently shown not to be the cause). Proprioception was profoundly reduced, but there was no weakness or muscle atrophy, despite generalized areflexia. The sensory deficit attained its maximum severity within a week, after which it stabilized and improved very little. Electrophysiologic studies showed absent or slowed sensory conduction but there were no abnormalities of motor nerve conduction or signs of denervation. Follow-up observations (for up to 5 years) disclosed no neoplastic or immunologic disorder, the usual causes of such a sensory neuronopathy. Lacking pathology, it was assumed, from the permanence of the condition, that sensory neurons were destroyed (sensory neuronopathy). A subsequent series of 42 patients reported by Windebank and colleagues emphasized an asymmetrical and brachial pattern of symptoms in some patients and an initial affection of the face in others. At present, this clinical pattern should be viewed as a syndrome rather than as a disease. Certain drugs and other agents, especially cisplatin and excessive intake of pyridoxine, are also causes of a sensory neuronopathy. In the latter, there is usually some degree of proximal weakness, and the sensory changes do not normally extend to the face and trunk. Acute Uremic Polyneuropathy In addition to the well-known chronic sensory neuropathy associated with chronic renal failure that is discussed later in the chapter, there is a more rapid ("accelerated") process that has not been widely appreciated as a cause of acute and subacute weakness. Most patients in our series were diabetics with stable end-stage renal failure who had been treated by peritoneal dialysis for their long-standing kidney disease (Ropper, 1993). In contrast to the better characterized and less severe chronic uremic neuropathy (page 1149), generalized weakness and distal paresthesias progress in over one or more weeks until a bedbound state is reached. More aggressive dialysis or a change to hemodialysis has little immediate effect, although kidney transplantation is curative. Electrophysiologic studies show some demyelinating features but usually not a conduction block.
In some instances the symptoms evolve swiftly over a week medications equivalent to asmanex inhaler generic 0.15mg/0.02mg femilon mastercard, new ones being added day by day treatment 5th metatarsal base fracture buy femilon visa. In others treatment gonorrhea discount femilon uk, the invasive stage of cerebral infection is inconspicuous symptoms rheumatoid arthritis purchase femilon 0.15/0.02 mg otc, and the course is so indolent that the entire clinical picture does not differ from that of malignant brain tumor. In such cases the abscess may become apparent only when cerebral imaging performed for the evaluation of headache or other symptoms discloses a ring-enhancing mass. Even then, the radiologic distinction between tumor and abscess is not straightforward, depending often on the presence of a uniform, enhancing capsule that is typical of a mature abscess (see below. Thus, a patient whose clinical condition seems to have stabilized may, in a matter of hours or a day or two, advance to an irreversible state of coma. Suppurative encephalitis (cerebritis) appears as dot-sized areas of decreased density that enhance with gadolinium. Blood cultures, sedimentation rate and chest x-ray are indispensable in the complete diagnosis of brain abscess, although it must be acknowledged that blood cultures are likely to be unrevealing except in cases of acute endocarditis. Sometimes only surgical exploration will settle the issue, but one must be cautious in interpreting the stereotactic biopsy if only inflammatory and gliotic tissue is obtained, since these changes may appear in the neighborhood of either abscess or tumor. Treatment During the stage of "cerebritis" and early abscess formation, which is essentially an acute focal purulent encephalitis, intracranial operation accomplishes little and probably adds only further injury and swelling of brain tissue and possibly dissemination of the infection. Some cases can be cured at this stage by the adequate administration of antibiotics. Even before bacteriologic examination of the intracerebral mass, certain antibiotics can be given- 20 to 24 million units of penicillin G and either 4 to 6 g of chloramphenicol, or metronidazole, a loading dose of 15 mg/kg followed by 7. Metronidazole is so well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract that it can be taken orally, 500 mg every 6 h. This choice of antimicrobial agents is based on the fact that anaerobic streptococci and Bacteroides are likely to be the preponderant causative organisms. Evidence of staphylococcal infection can be presumed if there has been recent neurosurgery or head trauma or a demonstrable bacterial endocarditis with this organism. These circumstances call for the use of a penicillinaseresistant penicillin, such as nafcillin, 1. In patients sensitive to penicillin, or if methicillin-resistant staphylococci are isolated or known to be common as local nosocomial organisms, the drug of choice is vancomycin 1 g every 12 h, the dose being adjusted to maintain a serum concentration of 20 to 40 mg/mL and trough levels of 10 mg/mL. Abscesses due to bacteria of oral origin do not respond well to any of these regimens because of the frequency of gram-negative organisms; a third- or fourthgeneration cephalosporin, such as cefotaxime, 2 g every 4 h intravenously, is then recommended. The initial elevation of intracranial pressure and threatening temporal lobe or cerebellar herniation should be managed by the use of intravenous mannitol and dexamethasone, 6 to 12 mg every 6 h. The decision regarding aspiration or open removal of the abscess is governed by its location and the course of clinical signs and by the degree of mass effect and surrounding edema as visualized by repeated scans. Only if the abscess is solitary, superficial, and well encapsulated or associated with a foreign body should total excision be attempted; if the abscess is deep, aspiration performed stereotactically and repeated if necessary is currently the method of choice. If the location of the abscess is such that it causes obstructive hydrocephalus- for example, in the thalamus adjacent to the third ventricle or in the cerebellum- it is advisable to remove or aspirate the mass and to drain the ventricles externally for a limited time. While it has been our practice to recommend either complete excision for posterior fossa and fungal abscesses or aspiration if they are deep, there is still a lack of unanimity as to the optimal surgical approach. It is customary to instill antibiotics into the abscess cavity following aspiration, but the efficacy of this treatment is difficult to judge. The combination of antimicrobial therapy and surgery has greatly reduced the mortality from brain abscess. The least satis- factory results are obtained if the patient lapses into coma before treatment is started; more than 50 percent of such patients in the past have died. If treatment is begun while the patient is alert, the mortality is in the range of 5 to 10 percent, and even multiple metastatic abscesses may respond. Following successful treatment of a cerebral abscess in a patient with congenital heart disease, correction of the cardiac anomaly is indicated to prevent recurrence. One may consider closing a patent foramen ovale if no other explanation for the abscess is apparent. As pointed out by Ellner and Bennett (their experience coincides with that of Swartz and our own), the clinical syndrome comprises cognitive disorders, seizures, and absence of lateralizing and focal cerebral signs, with or without headache and mild stiffness of the neck.
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