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The owner was advised to administer a broad-spectrum anthelmintic everlast my medicine cheap dramamine 50 mg mastercard, to rotate pastures medications not to crush generic 50 mg dramamine otc, and to monitor animals for signs of anemia medications 5 songs safe dramamine 50 mg. Make Room for the Ruminants 409 A herd of Hereford cattle were showing signs of alopecia and crusty skin lesions on the head and neck symptoms viral infection order 50mg dramamine with amex. The veterinarian took several skin scrapings to identify possible mite infestation. The owner stated that initially the llama walked with a slight limp and had weakness in his hind limbs. Since the animal was not anorexic, the owner decided to monitor the animal with the suspicion that the llama had injured its leg. Since the llama is pastured with other llamas in an area of the Midwest that has white-tailed deer and had eosinophilia, the veterinarian suspected that the llama had meningeal worm (Parelaphostroneylus tenuis) and treated him with an antiparasitic drug. The owner was given a poor prognosis due to the fact that the llama had already progressed to the paralytic stage. Today pigs are used for c their meat and hides, as research models, and for pharmaceutical production. Som Many of the anatomy and physiology concepts and medical terms related M to p have been covered in previous chapters. Equipment and Industry Terms backfat (bahk-faht) = thickness of fat along the dorsum of the pig. Swine Vaccinations Bordetella (br-dih-tehl-ah) = bacteria causing respiratory disease; atrophic rhinitis pathogen. Clostridium perfringens type C (klohs-trih-d-uhm pr-frihn-jehns tp C) = bacteria causing enterotoxemia that results in diarrhea and high mortality. Erysipelas (ehr-ih-sihp-eh-lahs) = bacteria causing acute septicemia, skin lesions, chronic arthritis, and endocarditis. Haemophilus (h-mohf-ih-luhs) = bacteria causing respiratory disease associated with acute onset, pyrexia, and reluctance to move. Mycoplasma (m-k-plahz-mah) = bacteria causing respiratory disease seen largely in young pigs with a severe cough. Needle teeth of baby pigs are clipped to prevent injury to the sow during nursing and to minimize wounds from sibling pigs. Swine Management Terms closed herd = group of animals that restricts entrance of new animals. Hog Heaven 415 Pasteurella (pahs-too-rehl-ah) = bacteria causing respiratory disease that sometimes leads to pericarditis and pleuritis. Streptococcus suis (strehp-t-kohk-kuhs s-his) = bacterial infection that causes meningitis. What is the name of the restraint method that uses ropes to place swine in lateral recumbency A swine operation that raises weanling pigs to market weight is what type of management system A holding pen that limits sow movement before and during parturition is known as a a. The tendency for animals to eliminate wastes in a particular location is known as a a. A group of 4-mo-old barrows was presented with clinical signs of sneezing, purulent nasal discharge, and decreased weight gain. The farmer sacrificed one pig for necropsy and found that the nasal turbinates were atrophied and asymmetrical. Dx was atrophic rhinitis, which is a common disease of pigs caused by two types of bacteria.

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Unfortunately treatment jaundice cheap 50 mg dramamine amex, these issues have not been explored in adolescents treatment questionnaire buy dramamine 50 mg cheap, although the prevalence of e-cigarette use has increased considerably in that population since 2011 (see Chapter 2) treatment of criminals order dramamine 50mg on line. Effects of Nicotine in Youth Users Nicotine is the prime psychoactive substance in conventional cigarettes (Yuan et al symptoms quad strain buy cheap dramamine 50mg on line. Although much of the literature on nicotine addiction arises from studies of nicotine exposure among adults, and with combustible tobacco products (see Table A3. These animal and human studies, taken together with studies of rising e-cigarette prevalence in youth (see Chapter 2), point to an age-dependent susceptibility to nicotine as a neurobiological insult. Limited direct human experimental data exist on the effects of nicotine exposure from e-cigarettes on the developing adolescent brain, but experimental laboratory data have been found to be relevant in animal models to contextualize effects in humans (Stevens and Vaccarino 2015). Even if the full complexity of human brain development and behavioral function during adolescence cannot be completely modeled in other species, the similarities across adolescents of different species support the use of animal models of adolescence when examining neural and environmental contributors to adolescent-characteristic functioning (Spear 2010). Animal studies provide an effective method to examine the persistent effects of prenatal, child, and adolescent nicotine exposure, in addition to human epidemiologic data. When considering an epidemiologic causal argument of exposure (risk factor) to health outcome (disease), one should note that animal models lend biological plausibility when experimentation with humans is not possible (or ethical) (Rothman et al. Furthermore, animal studies offer significant advantages compared to human studies-with the ability to control for many confounding factors, to limit nicotine exposure to differing levels of physical and neural development-and are pivotal for understanding the neural substrates associated with adolescence. The validity of any causal argument when examining animal models requires careful consideration, and yet in combination with epidemiologic data- such as prevalence, incidence, and strength of association between exposure and outcome-a causal argument can be constructed with literature from animal models representing biologic plausibility. Using a variety of study designs and research paradigms including humans and animals, research in this area provides evidence for neuroteratogenic and neurotoxic effects on the developing adolescent brain (Lydon et al. The brain undergoes significant neurobiological development during adolescence and young adulthood, which are critical periods of sensitivity to neurobiological insults (such as nicotine) and experience-induced plasticity (Spear 2000; Dahl 2004; Gulley and Juraska 2013). Although maturation occurs in different regions of the brain at different rates, a similar progression occurs in all areas characterized by a rapid formation of synaptic connections in early childhood, followed by a loss of redundant or unnecessary synapses (called pruning) and the formation of myelin. Because of myelin, nerve cells can transmit information faster, allowing for more complex brain processes. Pruning allows for more focused concentration, and myelination allows for faster electrical and neural signaling; both allow for more efficient cognitive processing. During adolescence and into young adulthood, myelination occurs rapidly in the frontal lobe, a place in the brain that controls executive functioning, reasoning, decision-making skills, self-discipline, and impulse control. Plasticity refers to the current understanding that the brain continues to change throughout life, not only because of normal, maturational neural growth and development but also because of changes in environmental neurobiological exposures (such as nicotine), injuries, behaviors, thinking, and emotions (Mills and Tamnes 2014). Across species, and in humans, adolescence is a key period of increased plasticity and rapid growth of brain circuits that regulate social, emotional, and motivational processes and decision making (Spear 2000, 2011; Nelson et al. The prefrontal cortex, which is involved in higher level regulatory control of complex behaviors (such as planning, impulse control, and working memory), continues normal structural and functional development into young adulthood, to about 25 years of age (Giedd and Rapoport 2010; Somerville and Casey 2010). Because of the immaturity and rapid growth of the prefrontal cortex, adolescents and young adults normally exhibit moody, risk-taking, and unpredictable impulsive behaviors. The combination of delayed maturation of frontal cognitive control and increased reactivity of subcortical reward-related and emotion-processing systems may lead to increased risk-taking behavior and a greater susceptibility to initiating substance use and the development of dependence (Steinberg 2008; Ernst and Fudge 2009; Counotte et al. Thus, myelination is vitally important to the healthy functioning of the central nervous system, and any exposure that significantly interferes with the myelination process can cause mild-to-severe cognitive and learning problems (Brady et al. Brain development in juvenile rodents has been reported to display patterns that resemble those of human beings, suggesting that the rodent model might be relevant to studying the neurobiological underpinnings of brain maturation in teenagers (Spear 2000). There is evidence for rapid growth of gray matter, followed by activity-dependent synaptic pruning (the process of synapse elimination that occurs between early childhood and the onset of puberty) and increasing myelination throughout the brain (Casey et al. Nicotine has more significant and durable damaging effects on adolescent brains compared to adult brains, the former suffering more harmful effects. Furthermore, in rodent models, nicotine actually enhances neuronal activity in several reward-related regions and does so more robustly in adolescents than in adults (Schochet et al. This increased sensitivity to nicotine in the reward pathways of adolescent rats is associated with enhanced behavioral responses, such as strengthening the stimulusresponse reward for administration of nicotine. In conditioned place-preference tests-where reward is measured by the amount of time animals spend in an environment where they receive nicotine compared to an environment where nicotine is not administered-adolescent rodents have shown an increased sensitivity to the rewarding effects of nicotine at very low doses (0. Adolescent rodents also have shown higher levels of nicotine self-administration than adults (Levin et al. This characteristic in rodent models of increased positive and decreased negative shortterm effects of nicotine during adolescence (versus adulthood) highlights the possibility that human adolescents might be particularly vulnerable to developing dependency to and continuing to use e-cigarettes. These biological mechanisms are of great public health importance as exposure to nicotine grows among nonsmoking youth through the increasing prevalence of e-cigarette use.

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Many of the anatomy and physiology concepts and medical terms related to goats have been covered in previous chapters treatment 5th finger fracture buy dramamine 50mg with amex. Additional terms pertaining to goats are listed under the cattle section because they apply to both animals medicine hat mall discount 50mg dramamine with amex. Camelids are considered pseudoruminants because they have three stomach compartments (reticulum treatment 4 sore throat discount dramamine 50 mg with visa, omasum medications knee order 50mg dramamine otc, and abomasum) instead of four. Llamas are the larger species with less desirable wool; alpacas are smaller than llamas and have high-quality wool; vicunas are undomesticated and are the smallest and rarest with fine, high-quality wool; and guanacos are slightly smaller than llamas and are undomesticated. Many of the anatomy and physiology concepts and medical terms related to llamas have been covered in previous chapters. Hemophilus somnus (h-moh-fihl-uhs sohm-nuhs) = bacterial infection that causes reproductive, urinary, respiratory, and septicemic disease in cattle. Make Room for the Ruminants 405 leptospirosis (lehp-t-sp-r-sihs) = bacterial disease caused by various serotypes of Leptospira; signs include renal failure, jaundice, fever, and abortion. The inedible visceral organs and unusable tissues removed from the carcass of a slaughtered animal are the a. What is the name of the passageway that takes milk from the teat cistern to the outside of the udder What is the term for the restraint device that secures cattle around the neck to allow accessibility for milking, feeding, and examining The behavior in which a camelid propels saliva at an animal or a person who is perceived to be a threat is called a. The hypocalcemic metabolic disorder of ruminants that is seen in late pregnancy or early lactation is a. Removing an animal from the rest because it does not meet a specific standard is known as a. The mating of dissimilar breeds to increase productivity and performance in the next generation is known as a. A 2-yr-old French alpine doe was presented with recurrent abdominal distention, decreased milk production, and dyspnea. L A 2-yr-old Suffolk ram was examined for lethargy, anorexia, and weight loss. The owner was questioned about grazing, nutritional, and deworming practices on the farm. The veterinarian took a blood sample for a hematocrit and a stool sample for parasite testing. The hematocrit revealed that the ram was mildly anemic, and the fecal exam revealed Haemonchus eggs. Atrophic rhinitis causes atrophy of the turbinates and distortion of the nasal septum. She had farrowed two litters normally before this but had problems with mastitis and agalactia. Because the pig had uterine inertia, the veterinarian had to perform an emergency C-section to retrieve the remaining pigs. C-section Provide the medical term for the underlined definitions. A litter of 2-wk-old pigs was presented with vomiting, abnormal frequency and liquidity of fecal material, incoordination, and elevated body temperature. In adult pigs, pseudorabies can cause respiratory disease and termination of pregnancy. Pseudorabies control measures, such as adding only serologically negative animals to the herd, avoiding visiting infected premises, keeping wild animals away from swine, and providing separate equipment for each group of animals, were discussed with the owner. Birds eta have thin skin that consists of two layers: the epidermis (superficial layer) and hav dermis (deep layer).

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If genetic linkage seems a roundabout way to identify disease genes treatment jerawat di palembang 50 mg dramamine visa, consider the alternative treatment genital herpes purchase 50 mg dramamine visa. Plant and animal breeders also study genetic polymorphisms to identify the wild ancestors of cultivated plants and domesticated animals medicine dispenser buy cheap dramamine 50mg on line, as well as to infer the practices of artificial selection that led to genetic changes in these species during domestication treatment depression discount dramamine 50 mg without prescription. They are also used to monitor genetic diversity in endangered species and species bred in captivity. Included in these differences are many mutations that cause or increase the risk of disease, but the majority of the differences are harmless in themselves. The hydrogen-bonded base pairs, along with hydrophobic base stacking of the nucleotide pairs in the core of the double helix, hold the two polynucleotide strands together in a double helix. Most genes are present in pairs in the nonreproductive cells of most animals and higher plants. One member of each gene pair is in the chromosome inherited from the maternal parent, and the other member of the gene pair is at a corresponding location (locus) in the homologous chromosome inherited from the paternal parent. The particular combination of alleles present in an organism constitutes its genotype. Even though each genotype can include at most two alleles, multiple alleles are often encountered among the individuals in natural populations. Select any highlighted keyword and you will be linked to a Web site containing genetic information related to the keyword. It contains sugar, which is highly soluble in water; phosphate groups, which are of moderate solubility; and bases, which have extremely low solubility. He immediately realized that this approach would be unique in its ability to amplify, at an exponential rate, a specific nucleotide sequence present in a vanishingly small quantity amid a much larger background of total nucleic acid. The new technique earned Mullis the 1993 Nobel Prize in chemistry, and today it is the basis of a large number of experimental and diagnostic procedures. Answer Because the single-enzyme digests give two bands each, there must be two restriction sites for each enzyme in the molecule. A 20-kilobase (kb) circular plasmid is digested with each enzyme individually and then in combination, and the resulting fragment sizes are determined by means of electrophoresis. Although at least 5000 species are cultivated, modern agricultural research emphasizes a few widely cultivated crops while largely ignoring plants such as Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea), breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis), carob (Ceratonia siliqua), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum), oca (Oxalis tuberosa), and ulluco (Ullucus tuberosus). To learn more about these minor crops and the use of molecular markers for characterizing and preserving their genetic diversity, consult this keyword site. Each new update includes a different site that highlights genetics resources available on the World Wide Web. In the 3 kb A1 12 kb A2 9 kb accompanying gel diagram, indicate the genotypes across the top and the phenotype (band position or positions) expected for each genotype. The scale on the right shows the expected positions of fragments ranging in size from 1 to 12 kb. Because individuals have two copies of each chromoosme (except for the sex chromosomes), any individual may carry A1A1, A1A2, or A2A2. Symbols such as (A T) mean that the site may be occupied by (in this case) either A or T, and N stands for any nucleotide. In the diagram of the gel at the right, match the fragment sizes with the correct bands. The accompanying diagram shows the resulting electrophoresis gel, with the band sizes indicated. A mixture of the two types of molecules is digested and analyzed with a Southern blot using either probe A or probe B, which hybridizes to the fragments where shown by the rectangles. In the accompanying gel diagram, indicate the bands that would result from the use of each of these probes. In the accompanying gel diagram, indicate the phenotype (pattern of bands) expected of each genotype. The tick marks indicate the positions of restriction sites for a particular restriction enzyme. Shown below are the results of typing for three probes (locus 1, locus 2, and locus 3) of the evidence (X) and 7 suspects (A through G). If the phosphates numbered 2 and 4 are radioactive, which mononucleotides will be radioactive after cleavage with snake venom phosphodiesterase Police suspect that the victim is one of five persons reported by their parents as missing.

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